in late spring and early summer for forcing in autumn.
Use these techniques along with carrots, parsnips and Jerusalem artichokes overwintered in the garden under a thick mulch, forcing rhubarb and endive (witloof
chicory) dug the previous autumn, and watching for the earliest wild greens (such as dandelion), and you'll enjoy fresh foods while most other gardeners are still waiting for the soil to warm and dry enough to till.
Vegetables: artichokes, asparagus, aubergines, beans (phaseolus), Brussels sprouts, cabbage, carrots, cauliflower, courgettes, cucumbers, garlic, leeks, lettuce, endives, onions, unshelled peas, celery, spinach, sweet peppers, tomatoes and witloof
Belgian (or Brussels or French) endive is the same as witloof (or "white leaf"), a strain of the 3- to 6-foot roadside weed chicory (Cichorium intybus)--common throughout the West.
But the cultivation of witloof began around 1850, when it was discovered that blanched plants could be grown in a dark cellar in winter when the soil outside was frozen.
The results are in agreement with the findings of Yucesan et al., (2007), who reported complimentary effects of TDZ with IAA on shoot regeneration from witloof
chicory (Cichorium intybus).
Organ formation in tissue culture was observed with tobacco tissues  Carrot explants ^Nobecourt, , Ulmus cambium cultures and Witloof
There are three types: witloof, which grows as a rosette of leaves forming a deep root that, when harvested, can be forced in a warm, dark spot to produce chicons (white, leafy buds); red chicory, also known as radicchio, which forms hearts; and sugarloaf, again a heart-forming type.
Sow Witloof in late spring and early summer for forcing in autumn, while red and sugarloaf varieties can be sown from mid-spring to late summer.
Of the three types, Witloof
, red chicory ('radicchio') and sugarloaf, the latter two form hearts like those of lettuce and Witloof
grows a rosette of leaves forming a deep root.