Since the disease was first reported by Doi in 1967, lots of research have been carried out on the diagnosis , preservation , distribution and concentration changes with seasonal variation , and the molecular mechanisms of Paulownia witches' broom
(PaWB) infection; other studies on phytoplasma genome and virulence factors have also been carried out [13, 14].
Using grafting instead of seeds allows farmers to control the height of their plants as well--limiting them to 2 or 2.5 metres (rather than 6 metres) so that they can be checked easily for signs of cocoa diseases such as witches' broom
, which affects the tips of the branches.
Writing in the Summer 2004 edition of Biologist," Dr Gareth Griffith of the University of Wales, Aberystwyth, warns that increased trade and improved transport links between South America and other cacao growing countries could allow fungal infections such as Witches' Broom
Disease and Frosty Pod Disease to spread to these hitherto uninfected areas.
Fungal infections - Witches' Broom
Disease and Frosty Pod - have already destroyed massive cocoa plantations in South America.
disease and frosty pod have already destroyed massive cocoa plantations in South America.
The exotically-named Witches' Broom
Disease and Frosty Pod have already devastated swathes of the South American plantations.
The winter festivals are all jumbled up in our shops with tinsel and baubles next to the witches' broom
sticks, wizards' hats and fireworks.
After a few years of growth, the tangled mass, called a "witches' broom
," resembles the business end of an old-fashioned broom.
I first encountered the witches' broom
on a big farm in Bahia, Brazil's chocolate state (see map, page 10).
The astrophyllite was so characteristic in shape, so much like small twig broom heads, that I called it witches' broom
disease, one of the most serious threats to cacao production, was first described by Went (1904), and the fungus (C.
Diseases such as witches' broom
, (which leaves pods brown and dry) and black pod (a cousin of potato blight) thrive in the humid climate of the rainforest.
But witches' broom
and other problems have made Brazil slip to eighth place in the past five years, according to a spokesperson for M&M Mars.
Nurseries also play an important role in controlling plant disease such as the Witches' Broom
Disease that particularly affects Omani lemons.
Unfortunately, it is susceptible to Paulownia witches' broom
disease, a serious and destructive disease, caused by phytoplasmas that belong to "Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense." These phytoplasmas are unculturable, lack cell walls, and have obligated symbiotic relationships with insects and plants , resulting in symptoms of witches' broom
, short internodes, phyllody, and yellowing of leaves, eventually resulting in death [2, 3].