The ordination reflected a gradient from well-drained mesic sites on a natural levee along Cypress Bayou (high first DCA axis ordination scores) to seasonally flooded oak-dominated flats (intermediate scores) to semi-permanently inundated water elm and cypress swamps (low scores).
Two types of swamps were also evident along the first DCA axis: Cypress Water-elm Swamps (solid squares of Figures 1 and 2), had a dense sub-canopy of water elm (Planera aquatica (Walt.) J.
Cypress dominated the overstory but there was an abundant sub-canopy of water elm (Planera aquatica).
Several of the most shade-tolerant species (holly, water elm, and American elm) are placed on the high-light end of the light gradient.
Three very shade-tolerant species were found in high light (American holly, American elm, and water elm), and two were shifted to medium-light conditions (red maple and ironwood).