This occurs, because as Culler suggests, the vocative
allows the speaker to effectively create its addressee, independent or irrespective of its actual properties (141).
For example, misunderstanding the distinction between the vocative
and the clarification functions of O and oh, Alexander Schmidt provides in his Shakespeare-Lexicon an instance of the two figures being "confounded," when in actuality they are not.
MASC 'dog' Nominative skil-os skil-i Genitive skil-u skil-on, Accusative skil-o skil-us, Vocative
skil-e skil-i Class II pateras.
The former is the feminine vocative
of the word padma, the lotus, as it appears in the sadhana "om mani padme hum" related to the Bodhisatva Avalokiteshvara, but actually addressing his female coefficient, the goddess Tara, according to a tantric interpretation of those two originally Mahayana figures.
address to monks (bhikkhave and its equivalents) that occurs so often in sutta literature appears to be indicating that the teachings being proffered are addressed exclusively to male monastics.
the use of the vocative
mood, with a distinction being made between its absence and the use of the denotative and affective vocatives
He detects epistolary features also throughout the letter, such as vocative
, questions, disclosure formulas, etc.
The first uses bis twice as a future tense ending, interpreting fur as a vocative
noun: Fur, flabis, flebis 'O Thief, you will blow, you will weep'.
He divides case in seven groups, namely, the nominative, the genitive, the dative, the accusative, the vocative
, the ablative and the actor or instrumental case.
By Alice Jones/London Since leaving school over a decade ago, I have not once used a quadratic equation, the vocative
case or a Bunsen burner.
The relationship is first suggested by the vocative
exclamations O crudelis Alexi and [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] which enrich each passage with a more emotional tone (45).
Even in the vocative
mode of apostrophe, however, her poems reconstitute the lyric itself as something written and read, not spoken and heard.
In the following example, Kevin employs direct address in the use of a vocative
expression (in bold) to engage the researcher as audience for his dramatisation of a plane crash enacted with a toy plane and himself as rescuer.
Jakobson believes that the purest expression of the conative function of language is the grammatical forms of the vocative
This study evaluates whether the use of diminutive forms together with vocative
ones may constitute a syntactic unit in which semantic and pragmatic values are mutually reinforced.