PL1 indicates tumor invasion of the elastic layer of visceral pleura
without reaching the visceral pleural surface; PL2 defines the tumor invasion of the visceral pleural surface; and PL3 specifies tumor invasion of the parietal pleura or chest wall.
Anatomically, the visceral pleura
contains plenty of lymphatic capillaries, which form a network draining into pulmonary lymphatic system.
Abnormal adherence or absence of the parietal and visceral pleura
Caption: Figure 3: Diffuse pleural thickening affecting the entire visceral pleura
SFT typically appear as masses abutting the pleura; most often arising from the lung visceral pleura
([approximately equal to]80% of cases) (13), but occasionally with apparent origins from the mediastinal ([approximately equal to]1-8% of cases) or parietal pleura (2,12,13,16,17).
In IPS( also known as intralobar pulmonary sequestration), the sequestrated portion is located within a normal lung lobe and lacks its own visceral pleura
while in EPS (also known as extralobar pulmonary sequestration), the sequestrated portion is located outside the normal lung parenchyma and has its own visceral pleura
When the left pleural cavity was opened, the pacing lead was found to be embedded in the anterior visceral pleura
, but the left lung was not injured in agreement with preoperative CT findings.
Once alveolar rupture results, for example, from a primary lung trauma or a constantly increasing high pressure gradient between the alveoli and their surrounding interstitial space, free air dissects along peribronchovascular interstitial sheaths or the visceral pleura
. This pulmonary interstitial emphysema finally spreads into the mediastinum [9,10].
A first examination of the histologic sections showed a tumor characterized by atypical cells with vascular affectation that invaded the visceral pleura
. There were multiple nodular neoformations with hemorrhagic areas showing a circumferential growth that affected blood vessels and bronchioles, which extended to adjacent areas and to the subpleural pulmonary interstitium.
(2) Additionally, rupture of these blebs, apical cysts, and pneumatoceles may damage the visceral pleura
causing a spontaneous secondary pneumothorax.
It can be quickly life-threatening.[sup] Because of the mechanism of pneumothorax, the movement of the visceral pleura
on the parietal pleura cannot be seen because they fill with air.
Gas can enter the pleural space through an opening in the visceral pleura
from inside the lungs, or through a communication between the pleural space and the atmosphere through the chest wall and parietal pleura.
There have only been two reported cases of desmoid tumours originating from the visceral pleura
or pulmonary parenchyma.
It was important to visualise the echogenic (white) line of the normal visceral pleura
at the most dorsal margin of the lung field before scanning the ventral areas of the chest.