Ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) reflect the excitatory utricular response and are used to evaluate the ascending vestibular pathway, as the crossed vestibulo-ocular reflex (13) pointed to the shift of the contralateral eye to sound stimulation of the vestibular system (14), demonstrating that acoustic stimulation of the otoliths leads to oVEMP However, there still are doubts about whether oVEMP records changes exclusively in the utriculus
or also in the sacculus (15).
Bluebottles, whose scientific name is Physalia utriculus
, resemble jellyfish but are only a relative of those creatures.
The OTOF gene, which encodes the otoferlin protein, is expressed highly in the internal hair cells in the organ of Corti, utriculus
, and sacculus and in the brain.
Cystic degeneration of prostatic hyperplasia prostatic utriculus
cysts seminal vesicle cysts cysts of vas deferens or ductus ejaculatorius bladder diverticula bladder duplication and huge ureterocoeles are the main urological causes; whereas mesenteric cysts colonic lymphatic cysts and intestinal duplications and hydatid cysts are non-urogenital causes.1-10 For differential diagnosis radiologic findings and serologic tests can be used.
The semicircular canals and the vestibule of the bony labyrinth of the temporal bone, the utriculus
, saccule, and semicircular ducts of the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear, and the vestibular division of cranial nerve VIII are responsible for balance and equilibrium.
The labyrinth includes three semicircular canals and three compartments: saculus, utriculus
and lagena; each sac contains one otolith, the lapillus, the sagitta and the asteriscus, respectively (Morales-Nin 2000, Berra & Aday 2004, Popper et al.