Mammalian fingertips and toes can partially regrow under certain conditions; however, regeneration is greatly limited compared to urodele amphibians such as newts and salamanders that can completely regrow an amputated limb [1-3].
Full-limb regeneration in adult urodele amphibians occurs in several overlapping stages including wound healing, dedifferentiation, and redevelopment, which is similar to natural embryonic limb development .
Many theories have been proposed to explain why successful regeneration occurs in urodele amphibians but not in mammals.
The inability to mutate specific genes in axolotls and other urodeles, or to add specific genes to the animals, hinders attempts to determine the significance of any new gene that researchers suspect of aiding regeneration.
As a result, Sanchez is operating on the assumption that the regeneration strategy used by planaria resembles the one employed by urodeles and may provide insight into the human failure to regenerate.
Though investigators have amassed a wealth of knowledge about these common laboratory animals and have many ways to study and manipulate them genetically, the adults of these species don't come close to matching a urodele's regenerative powers.
In addition, molecular biological studies of urodele
and caecilian AQPs, coupled with physiological and histological analyses, would give significant insights into the early evolution of the genes and functions of AQP2, AQP5, and AQP6.
These eight arrangements encompass most of the patterns described in urodeles (table 5).
is less common in Taricha than in other urodeles studied to date (plethodontids, Plethodon: Hanken 1983; Thorius: Hanken 1985; Bolitoglossa; Alberch 1983.
However, this also means that fish and urodeles have developed a unique tissue regeneration machinery that was inactivated during vertebrate evolution.
A clue may come from studies of "super-healer" species such as fish and urodeles. This review highlights the tissue regeneration models in small fish species and overviews the recent achievements and current views.
2013: Ontogenetic mechanisms underlying sexual size dimorphism in Urodele
amphibians: an across-species approach.
Johnson, "Toxicity of the Urodele
Amphibians Taricha, Notophthalmus, Cynops and Paramesotriton (Salamandridae)," Copeia, vol.
This highly pathogenic fungus causes a lethal skin disease that has so far been restricted to urodele
amphibians (newts and salamanders); the fungus was most likely introduced from East Asia into Europe via the pet trade (2).
Effect of cadmium on gonadogenesis and metamorphosis in Pleurodeles waltl (urodele