urobilin


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brown bile pigment formed from urobilinogens and found in feces and in small amounts in urine

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Convert bilirubin to urobilinogen, some of which is reabsorbed and subjected to enterohepatic recirculation, while the rest is excreted through the kidneys as urobilin.
Biological metabolites originate from human and animal feces (stanols, sterols, and urobilin); urine (uric acid and its metabolites, and urobilin); antioxidants; antibiotics; and vitamins/nutrients (Leeming, Ball, Ashbolt, & Nichols, 1996).
Other changes include a darkening of the urine color, due to oxidation of colorless chromogens such as the oxidation of urobilinogen to urobilin, or a change in color as bilirubin is oxidized to biliverdin.
In general, when the liver is attacked, there is inflammation of the vasculature and duct tissue resulting in hepatocellular damage (Borkowsky & Krugman, 1998), blockage of the bile ducts resulting in increased bilirubin in the blood (causing jaundice and dark urine from urobilin) and decreased bilirubin in the GI track (causing clay colored stool), and abdominal pain as the liver capsule enlarges.