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(192) Specifically, unrepresentativeness of a sample creates selection bias in causal inferences if (1) a criterion used to select the sample upon which the inferences are based is a cause of the dependent variable (here, foreign sovereign immunity decisions) and (2) that criterion is also correlated with an explanatory variable of interest (e.g., whether the foreign state is a democracy).
Conversely, I identified some of the main limitations of online research methodologies, transverse to the different possible techniques: the "digital divide", namely the low and inhomogeneous penetration of web usage in different places, and consequently the unrepresentativeness of some researches.
Instead of looking for the "real" subject and events--or, put another way, the unrepresentativeness of these texts (by revealing, for example, the "truth" of experiences they aimed to depict)-Maguire shows their "fabric" and, through it, the way some themes and concerns were textually and politically addressed.
Among the reasons for this sober statement is the high concentration of power in the prime minister or premier's (hereafter first minister) hands, the opacity of cabinet decision-making processes and the weak mechanisms of accountability, as well as the demographic unrepresentativeness of cabinet appointments.
Surprise and unrepresentativeness are not the only two vices of
Harmer point to the unrepresentativeness of stakeholders as one of the "unhealthy habits" of global public-private health partnerships, but it is important to recognize that this skewed representation on missions is a product of the various demands and constraints imposed on missions.
As Veena Kukreja observes: "In Pakistan, the vitiation of the electoral process led to the continuous narrowing and increasing unrepresentativeness and unresponsiveness of a self-perpetuating political elite that so irretrievably discredited the parliamentary structure and process that it got brushed aside by the military elite by a decade after its birth."69
Errors are influenced by multiple causes: sample unrepresentativeness and test-sample inhomogeneity; sample or test-sample cross-contamination; overlapping of gamma peaks of various radionuclides; inaccuracies in weighing and measurement of volume; measurement of reference source activity; random nature of nuclear transformations (statistical error).
While Islamism had for many decades dominated Arab activist political discourse, the transformations underway have all exposed the underlying reality of Islamism's inadequacy, including its basic unrepresentativeness of Arab societies and their aspirations.
The too small sample size of 276, the unrepresentativeness of the sample in Indianapolis, the accuracy of the self-report media expenditure, and even the quality of this telephone survey with only a 55% response rate should be improved in future studies.
Another shot across the bow would be to remark on the unrepresentativeness of the substitute measures used to stand in for good physician behavior.
Furthermore, when we consider the likelihood of this unrepresentativeness, we must be sceptical about whether the evidence that we currently have available is less than good evidence for ultimism, irrespective of its apparent force (92).
Many different forms of participation are marked by unrepresentativeness of participants versus the population as a whole in either political attitudes or demographic characteristics (Verba, Schlozman, and Brady 1995).
This practice minimized perceptions of injustice or unrepresentativeness among employees, as they tended to perceive the practice as a data-driven feedback process for all, rather than a selective monitoring device.
The problem of unrepresentativeness affects other groups with power to fill in the generalities of human right treaties.
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- Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organisation