However, Fitch notes that the mineral (oil and gas) assets are Level 3 investments that are highly volatile and valued with unobservable
inputs that are supported by little or no market activity.
We estimated the models using OLS with individual fixed effects (Wooldridge 2013) because it only uses variation in proxy status within the same individual over time and thereby accounts for unobservable
individual-level time-invariant variables such as personality traits (observable time-invariant variables such as sex and race are also captured by the fixed effects).
We distinguish three cases: the observable queues, the partially observable queues, and the unobservable
queues, according to the information levels regarding system states.
Level 3 inputs are all inputs that are unobservable
But critics argue that factors unobservable
to researchers but correlated with EITC receipt are responsible for children's success, not the EITC transfers.
Even its title is appropriately ectoplasmic, and could reference the Holy Spirit, or a tongue-in-cheek variation bearing the same first word; or, as I found when I looked through the periodic table of elements and discovered Hs as the symbol for Hassium, a silvery substance only produced a few times through nuclear reaction in tiny, almost unobservable
quantities, with an incredibly short life.
One difficulty in evaluating the impact of microcredit is that borrowing and non-borrowing households typically differ in both observable and unobservable
space of system (1), denoted by, is defined as a subspace of K, which satisfies
The fair value guidance requires companies to disclose the valuation processes related to their Level 3 measurements, quantitative information about the significant unobservable
inputs they use in determining these fair value measurements, and a description of the sensitivity of the fair value measurements to changes in these significant unobservable
This paper reviews recent literature to determine the extent to which unobservable
medication exposure time may be a common source of bias in studies using pharmacy claims data, and describes methodological adjustments that have been examined to date.
In the more interesting case when risk manager effort is unobservable
and not contractible, the principal must offer each risk management function distinct contract terms to induce risk manager effort.
However, astronomers do not know what is the current status of the comet, since it has entered the solar glare and it is unobservable
In fact, mentalism holds that a causal explanation of behavior is incomplete at best and defective at worst if it deploys only concepts from the observable behavioral dimension and fails to appeal to unobservable
causal elements from a nonbehavioral dimension.
Ensure an assessment is completed of whether an input is observable or unobservable
when testing the FVM hierarchy classification.
Because 'the subject is in principle unobservable
to science', it can all too easily disappear.