myrtillus), and the twinflower (Linnaea borealis), which are all characteristic of other colder areas, such as the tundra and high mountain, and also of the bog areas in the taiga.
Xeromorphic evergreen leaves are typical of many other vascular plants of the boreal forests, including pteridophytes such as club mosses (Lycopodium); rhododendrons (Rhododendron, Ericaceae); blueberries, cranberries, and cowberries (Vaccinium); marsh rosemary (Ledum palustre, Ericaceae); bog rosemary (Andromeda, Ericaceae); bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Ericaceae); Scotch heather or ling (Calluna vulgaris, Ericaceae); wintergreen (Pyrola, Pyrolaceae); pipsissewa (Chimaphila, Pyrolaceae); one-flowered shinleaf (Moneses, Pyrolaceae); crowberry (Empetrum nigrum, Empetraceae); twinflower (Linnaea borealis, Caprifoliaceae); holly (Ilex rugosa, Aquifoliaceae); and skimmias (Skimmia repens, Rutaceae).
Almost the only exception is the twinflower (Linnaea borealis), whose tiny dry fruit are covered with small hooks that are easily caught in the fur of many animals.
uliginosum), crowberry (Empetrum nigrum, Empetraceae), twinflower (Linnaea borealis, Caprifoliaceae), one-flowered shinleaf (Moneses uniflora, Pyrolaceae), dwarf rattlesnake plantain (Goodyera repens, Orchidaceae), club mosses such as the stiff club moss (Lycopodium annotinum, Lycopodiaceae), and horsetails such as Equisetum sylvaticum (Equisetaceae).
Among the rare species are the ivy (Hedera helix), which is here at its easternmost limits; the dwarf birch (Betula humilis); the dwarf willow (Salix myrtilloides); the twinflower
(Linnaea borealis); the Scrofulariaceae Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum; the Ranunculaceae Isopyrum thalictroides; the Fabaceae Lathyrus laevigatus; the marsh saxifrage (Saxifraga hirculus); and the marsh felwort (Swertia perennis), as well as a dozen orchids.