The excavation revealed two heavily damaged furnaces forming a pair (as per six of the seven excavated between Saprim and Taluy in 2010), a tuyere
of complete circumference and several medium-sized (100-150 mm) pieces of dense black slag.
Hoefele and Brimacombe  investigated the behavior of gas injected into liquids by high-speed cinematography and pressure measurement in the tuyere
. They found that matte converters are in the bubbling regime.
Other variables manipulated in this study were the water pump power, well depth, the number of days per year the water pump has been working, the area of lands irrigated by the pump, and the pump tuyere
In the late '60s, the Noranda Group, a think tank of scientists in Rouyn-Noranda, developed a product called the Gaspe Tuyere
Puncher, an automated mechanism that blasts air through refining furnaces at smelters to keep the air holes clear.
In the late sixties, Savard and Lee pioneered the development of the annular tuyere
for oxygen injection into the bottom of converters and established new pathways for pneumatic steelmaking.
A study of refractory wear in the tuyere
region of a Peirce-Smith nickel converter has been carried out by Liow et al(7).
The bricks remained intact during rough handling when charged into the cupola and were still intact as they descended to the tuyere
windows, where temperatures reached 3,000F (1,550C).
Initially the ore was smelted into "pigs" in one of 30 scattered peat and coal fuelled hearth furnaces, akin to a blacksmith's forge, the air being forced through a tuyere
by water-powered bellows.
This is indicated by the discovery of various metal objects and metal smelting residues such as nails, slag, tuyere
, dross, fragments of copper and bronze, and bronze Buddha images.
The 1991 trial also included tuyere
injection of oxygen in the smelting area just above bath level, to test the feasibility of maintaining the necessary reaction temperatures in the face of high heat demand for iron and lead reduction reactions.
(0.1m) intervals starting at tuyere
level and extending to 16 in.
"One is air control to the lead blast furnace tuyere
. The other is the high productivity of the sintering machine attained at the Herculaneum plant which will be imported to La Oroya via know-how transfer.