Individual alkaloids were tested for their ability to block nicotinic receptor dependent contractions of the rat diaphragm/phrenic-nerve, in comparison with the neuromuscular nicotinic antagonist tubocurarine
. Regular twitch contractions of the diaphragm were induced by electric stimulation of the phrenic nerve (0.2 Hz, 1 ms, SV) via platinum electrodes and a square wave stimulator.
(1) Anesthetists in the Korean War exercised the added benefit of intravenous muscle relaxation with the introduction of succinylcholine and tubocurarine
. In Vietnam, intravenous barbiturates (pentobarbital, secobarbital) and morphine with atropine or scopolamine were used preoperatively.
Table One: Sample list of neuromuscular blocking agents available in Canada Generic Name Common Trade Name atracurium Tracrium cisatracurium Nimbex mivacurium Mivacron pancuronium Pavulon succinylcholine ([dagger]) Quelicin ([dagger]) tubocurarine
Tubarine vecuronium Norcuron ([dagger]) Depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent.
Blood products, iodine contrast, opioids and even tubocurarine
are commonly associated with anaphylactoid reactions.
However, charged molecules such as tubocurarine
can also enter the fetus (Kivalo and Saarikoski 1972, 1976).
The fish were injected with tubocurarine
chloride (0.1 mg/kg) to block neuromuscular transmission, and then the seawater with anesthetic was replaced with anesthetic-free, chilled seawater.
Familiar examples of plant-derived drugs include the potent analgesics morphine and codeine, from the poppy (Papaver somniferum); the antimalarial drug quinine, from Cinchona pubescens; the powerful muscle relax ant tubocurarine
, from Chondrodendron tomentosum; digitoxin, a cardiotonic from the foxglove plant (Digitalis purpurea); and ephedra, a component of many over-the-counter antihistamines, from Ephedra sinica.
A comparison of the effects of suxamethonium and tubocurarine
in patients in London and New York.
Observations of indigenous medicinal practices have always proved useful in the discovery of many modern drugs like quinine, artemisinin, aspirin, atrophine, digoxin, ephedrine, morphine, reserpine, tubocurarine
, vinblastine, vincristine, and taxol, to name only a few (Gilani and Rahman 2005).
: Alkaloid isolated from the bark and stems of Chondodendron tomentosum (Menispermaceae); active principle of curare.
Some of these compounds include tubocurarine
, morphine, codeine, aspirin, atropine, pilocarpine, ephedrine, vinblastine, vincristine, taxol, podophyllotoxin, camptothecin, digitoxigenin, gitoxigenin, digoxigenin, capsaicin, allicin, curcumin, and artemisinin.
A number of modern drugs like aspirin, atropine, ephedrine, digoxin, morphine, quinine, reserpine and tubocurarine
are examples, which were originally discovered through observations of traditional cure methods of indigenous peoples [Gilani and Rahman, 2005].
In 1950, after a decade of 11 other unpublished New Zealand cases of tetanus with two recoveries, and another series treated by basal sedation with 50% surviving, DW Beaven (50) and his Christchurch team supplied a six-year-old boy with anaesthetic doses of tribromoethanol with 350 mg tubocurarine
(d-TC) over [greater than or equal to] 12 days, to control his tetanus spasms and severe opisthotonus.