MBF for true firs
dried at 88[degrees]C (190[degrees]F).
Past logging practices, combined with decades of aggressive firefighting, have changed many of these forests from open, park-like Ponderosa pine and larch stands to dense stands of true firs
, Douglas-fir, and lodgepole pine.
Espenas (9) found that longitudinal shrinkage in western redcedar, western hemlock, and true fir
decreased until about age 12, after which it generally leveled off.
Decay losses associated with wounds in commercially thinned true fir
stands in northern California.
White, noble and true fir
and lodgepole pine are available at higher elevations.
As defined by the Western Wood Products Association (1997), hem-fir is a commercial name for the combination of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) and any of the five different types of true firs
Ferns and their allies, such as horsetails; gymnosperms, such as pines, true firs
, and spruces; and flowering plants such as lilies, grasses, and roses used by Native Americans and early settlers are shown, with b&w illustrations, field keys, and information on life history, ecology, and adaptations.
However, both fire-resistant trees depend on an occasional low-intensity fire to kill their competitors, the true firs
The presence of unique combinations of "juvabiones" in the extractive mixtures obtained from true firs
makes these sesquiterpenes useful as discriminators for chemotaxonomic identifications.
In a review of Idaho forest data for the period 1952 to 1987, Jay O'Laughlin of the University of Idaho found that western white pine and ponderosa pine components in Idaho forests had declined 60 percent and 40 percent respectively, while true firs
, Douglas-fir, and lodgepole pine had increased 60, 39, and 15 percent.
The idea's worth trying with Douglas firs or pines--but it probably wouldn't work as well with stiffer, more formal true firs
(Abies) or spruces (Picea).
Big, old Douglas firs mingle with younger trees, including true firs
Hemlock, true firs
, some of the pines, they go really fast.
The fir engraver is the big culprit for the true firs
- white and red.
The target this time was the tussock moth, which was damaging and killing, Douglas-fir and true firs
in the West.