ATTREX is studying moisture and chemical composition from altitudes of 55,000 feet to 65,000 feet in the tropical tropopause
, which is the transition layer between the troposphere, or the lowest part of the atmosphere, and the stratosphere, which extends up to 11 miles above Earth's surface.
Scientists consider the tropical tropopause
to be the gateway for water vapor, ozone and other gases that enter the stratosphere.
The first flight of the Airborne Tropical Tropopause
Experiment (ATTREX), a multi-year airborne science campaign with a heavily instrumented Global Hawk aircraft, will take off from and be operated by
They are found in the upper levels of Earth's atmosphere at the tropopause
, the boundary between the troposphere and stratosphere.
The best is the correlation at the level of the tropopause
, but differences between the measurements in the stratosphere are large.
This U-2 flight produced the first high-altitude, high-resolution images of the upper tropopause
region of a tropical cyclone.
Troposcatter signals normally use a frequency of around two gigahertz and are transmitted in a tight beam aimed at the tropopause
(part of the atmosphere separating the troposphere and stratosphere), midway between the transmitter and receiver sites.
Marked disturbance also showed up beneath at 700hPa (10000 feet) and above: from 400hPa through all Tropospheric levels, through the Tropopause
(just above 100hPa at 52000 feet) into the lower Stratosphere to some 30hPa above 75000 feet aloft.
Our hypothesis is that these atmospheric ice fall events are related with an anomalous behaviour of the tropopause
(the lowest part of the earth's atmosphere) and are probably related to climate change.
2]) at the tropopause
[the boundary between the troposphere, where most weather occurs, and the stratosphere, the next atmospheric layer above the troposphere] after allowing for stratospheric temperatures to readjust to radiative equilibrium, but with surface and tropospheric temperatures and state held fixed at the unperturbed values" (Forster et al.
Professor Chandra Wickramasinghe, pictured, from Cardiff University, a leading member of the scientific team, said, "There is now unambiguous evidence for the presence of clumps of living cells in air samples from as high as 41 kilometres, well above the local tropopause
, above which no air from lower down would normally be transported.