Depending on the inflammatory infiltrate location, patients might present with various nonspecific symptoms that include nerve compression in cavernous sinus, partial or complete ophthalmoplegia indicating superior orbital fissure involvement, or loss of vision indicating optic nerve involvement; isolated trochlear
nerve paresis has also been described (4).
Orbital myositis, thyroid ophthalmopathy presenting with isolated trochlear
nerve paralysis, cycsticercosis, multiple sclerosis, Lyme disease, and herpes zoster ophthalmicus should also be excluded in these patients (14,15,16,17).
ACVF, anterior cerebral vein foramen; AFPC, anterior foramen for preorbital canal; ANTO, antorbital condyle; ELF, endolymphatic foramen; ES, eye stalk; ESAF, efferent spiracular artery foramen; F, fontanelle; FM, foramen magnum; ICAF, internal carotid artery; LC, lateral commissure; NC, nasal capsule; OC, occipital condyle; OF, orbital fissure; PFPC, posterior foramen for preorbital canal; PLF, perilymphatic foramen; PROP, preorbital process; POST, postorbital process; R, rostrum; SOC, supraorbital crest; II, optic nerve foramen; IV, trochlear
nerve foramen; VII, hyomandibular branch of facial nerve foramen; X, vagus nerve foramen.
The surgeries were indicated in patients with recurrent patellar dislocation with: torn MPFL, minor or moderate trochlear
dysplasia, and no serious cartilage damage (Outerbridge grades 3 or 4) established by X-ray, magentic resonance imaging or previous arthroscopic findings [9, 11].
It is difficult to detect isolated trochlear
fracture on anteroposterior radiograph.
The sunrise view makes the patella look like the sun rising between two mountains, which are the femoral condyles making up the sides of the femoral trochlear
Deepening the trochlear
groove to enable the patella to remain in place more easily.
Koh faced such derailment potential fairly recently while treating a 25-year-old woman for trochlear
dysplasia (an un stable kneecap).
Repetitive excessive forces may eventually lead to olecranon stress fractures propagating from the structural weak point in the trochlear
groove, and may be detected on radiographs as transverse or oblique in orientation, with or without sclerotic changes.
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to estimate the angles of declination and inclination in adult human dry tali; to estimate the differences in the angles between right and left tali; and to report and estimate the differences in other morphological parameters such as maximum anterioposterior length of the talus, maximum transverse width of the talus, trochlear
length, length of the sulcus tali, and width of the sulcus tali of right and left sides.
Patellofemoral instability (PFI) occurs when the patella disengages completely from the trochlear
4-10) Lesions may also present in the inferior-central lateral condyle that account for 10 to 20% of cases, while femoral trochlear
lesions account for less than 1% of cases.
Causes and prognosis in 4278 cases of paralysis of the oculomotor, trochlear
and abducens cranial nerves.
Ammonia per se decreases postsynaptic inhibition of cortical, spinal and trochlear
motor neurons leading to severe tonic convulsions (Haliburton and Morgan, 1989).
Rozenbaum, "HIV-1 related ischaemic trochlear
nerve palsy," Journal of Neurology, vol.