Laryngeal fibreoscopy revealed stenosis below the vocal cords; computed tomography confirmed considerable stenosis (about 8 cm in total) extending from 2 cm below the vocal cords to the fourth tracheal cartilage
and down the right bronchus to 1 cm below the bifurcation.
On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the mass appeared to be a multinodular and heterogenous lesion; it originated on the left posterior side of the trachea at the level of the first and second tracheal cartilages
(figure 1, A).
Birds have complete tracheal rings, which are relatively more resistant to compressive collapse than the C-shaped tracheal cartilages
The proximal and distal tracheal cartilages
were sutured by using 2-0 polyamide suture material (Fig.
25 cm transversely and vertically and is usually anterior to the second and third tracheal cartilages
Relapsing polychondritis is a rare systemic disease characterized by recurrent, widespread chondritis of the auricular, nasal, and tracheal cartilages
The tracheal cartilages
are hyperechoic, as well as the cricothyroid membrane and the vocal cords.
Because of lack of response to medical therapy, 5 tracheal cartilages
were surgically resected and an end-to-end tracheal anastomosis was performed.