Fiberoptic intubation can be performed awake under sedation with or without topical anaesthesia
or with muscle relaxant (Suxamethonium, vecuronium, rocuronium, atracurium).
It is most often used for topical anaesthesia
of the skin and mucous membranes in the form of EMLA cream, which is a eutectic mixture of 2.5% prilocaine and 2.5% lidocaine.
It concluded patient discomfort was mild regardless of technique; however, it stated subconjunctival injection may be an option for highly sensitive patients , and this is supported by a survey of patients' preference of topical anaesthesia
, which revealed 88% of the patients preferred subconjunctival anaesthesia over 12% of topical anaesthesia
for ongoing intravitreal injections .
Analgesic effect of supplemental intracameral lidocaine during phacoemulsification under topical anaesthesia
: a randomised controlled trial.
with EMLA cream is inferior to other local anaesthetic techniques and has been reported to be inadequate for RNC.
Recently published literature shows that most patients experience a variety of visual sensations during cataract surgery under loco-regional or topical anaesthesia
. Visual sensations include perception of movements, flashes, colours, changes in brightness, sight of surgical instruments, surgeon's hands or fingers, or even the surgeon.
Other techniques that dentists in the country are using to distract patients, especially children, are slow needle insertion, hypnosis, topical anaesthesia
, and computer simulations.
Anaesthesia for cataract surgery has changed throughout the years from general anaesthesia to local anaesthesia (retrobulbar, peribulbar, subtenons and topical anaesthesia
of the normal tympanic membrane: a controlled clinical trial of different suspensions of lidocaine.
Allan, "Topical anaesthesia
alone versus topical anaesthesia
with intracameral lidocaine for phacoemulsification," Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no.
(17) (1957) have suggested preparations containing lignocaine for topical anaesthesia
of the unbroken skin.
Sub-Tenon's block has been used for a large number of corneal and anterior chamber ophthalmic surgical procedures, including cataract surgeries, vitreoretinal surgeries,9 panretinal photocoagulation,10 strabismus surgeries,11 trabeculectomy,12 optic nerve sheath fenestration,13 chronic pain management14 and therapeutic delivery of drugs.15 It does not need a large injectable volume and is found to achieve better success rate when compared to retrobulbar, peribulbar and topical anaesthesia
The authors evaluated the feasibility of performing awake videolaryngoscopy on each other with minimal topical anaesthesia
of the airway and no sedation.
Cagini C, De Carolis A, Fiore T, Iaccheri B, Giordanelli A, Romanelli D 2006 Limbal anaesthesia versus topical anaesthesia
for clear corneal phacoemulsification Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica 84 (1) 105-109
There are two ways to perform this test: (a) Without topical anaesthesia
(Schirmer test I), which evaluates the ability of the ocular surface to respond to surface stimulation, and (b) Under topical anaesthesia
(Schirmer test II) which evaluates basal tear secretion.