Then the subjects underwent myofunctional evaluation, focusing on tongue mobility
. For evaluation of this performance, we used the adapted item of the AMIOFE  tongue movements protocol.
The goal is to improve jaw stability and closure, to increase tongue mobility
, strength and positioning, to improve lip closure (especially during swallowing) and to decrease nasal regurgitation during swallowing.
Mastica-tion, tongue mobility
, and lip closure are skills of the oral phase of ingestion and have been shown to deterio-rate with age.31 Crow HC et al showed that the change in tongue function is gender and age dependent and follows the same trends as change in hand function with ageing leading to decrease in strength in older individuals and females, however, tongue endurance is gender- and age-independent.32 Furthermore, Steele CM, et al showed a stereotyped pattern of tongue movement change with ageing in human during swallowing with effects on movement duration.33 Robbins J et al showed that swallowing pressures decline with age leading older people to work harder to produce adequate swallowing pressure and increasing the risk of developing dysphagia.34
Consonant intelligibility and tongue mobility
in patients with partial glossectomy.
Conditions that may lead to repetitive strain include a deviated septum, articulation problems caused by tight jaw muscles, or poor tongue mobility
The aim of the therapies was to strengthen lingual musculature, buccinator, lips, masseter and musculature of the facial mime, as well as to work on tongue mobility
, buccinator, bilateral mastication and speech training, as well as stretch the tongue musculature in the case of one subject (20%) who had a short lingual frenulum.
All foreign bodies were successfully removed, with none of the patients experiencing altered sensation or problems with tongue mobility
If the frenum is short, partial ankyloglossia may reduce tongue mobility
. This is illustrated in Fig 2a showing a tongue tie at initial diagnosis in an 8 year old girl.
* elucidate the suggested movement for tongue mobility