In terms of redness, at days 3 and 4, there was a consistently increased amount of redness on the side treated with the fractionated thulium
fiber laser, with swelling also being significantly increased at day 5." Similarly, he said, the side treated with the fractionated picosecond laser experienced significantly less crusting on posttreatment days 1 through 9, less peeling on days 3 through 5, and less itching on day 4.
To put this into perspective, lutetium and thulium
are the two least-abundant rare earths.
The method of using 2 [micro]m CW laser for treating BPH includes 2 [micro]m (thulium
) laser resection of the prostate-tangerine technique (TmLRP-TT), and 2 [micro]m (thulium
) laser enucleation of the prostate (ThuLEP)., A prospective analysis of 51 patients with previously negative transrectal prostate biopsies, who underwent surgical treatment using TmLRP-TT showed that the mean IPSS, QoL score, Qmax, and PVR, changed notably in a 6-month follow-up period (22.5 [+ or -] 6.9 vs.
applications 57 Lanthanum Light Battery alloys, lasers, phosphors 58 Cerium Light Ni/metal hydride (NiMH) batteries for hybrid/electric vehicles, phosphor powders 59 Praseodymium Light Permanent magnets, NiMH batteries, photographic filters 60 Neodymium Light Permanent magnets, lasers, astronomical instruments 62 Samarium Light Permanent magnets, reactor control rods 65 Terbium Heavy Permanent magnets, lighting and display phosphors 66 Dysprosium Heavy Permanent magnets, lasers, lighting 67 Holmium Heavy Magnets 69 Thulium
Heavy Magnets Atomic Crustal abundance Criticality to clean no.
Wang, "High-power thulium
fiber laser Q-switched with single-layer graphene," Optics Letters, vol.
It is a continuous-wave thulium
fiber laser device for irradiation of corneal tissue.
Abbreviations 3-APP: 3-Aminopropyl phosphonate BBB: Blood brain barrier BIRDS: Biosensor imaging of redundant deviation in shifts CEST: Chemical exchange saturation transfer CSI: Chemical shift imaging EPR: Enhanced permeation and retention FOV: Field of view LW: Linewidth MR: Magnetic resonance NPs: Nanoparticles [pH.sub.e]: Extracellular pH ROI: Region of interest SD: Standard deviation SNR: Signal-to-noise ratio SLR: Shinnar-Le Roux SPIO: Superparamagnetic iron oxide [TmDOTP.sup.5-]: Thulium
1, 4, 7, 10-tetraazacyclododecane- 1, 4, 7, 10-tetrakis methylene phosphonate.
The next step was separation of the sub-groups samarium-dysprosium and the holmium, erbium, thulium
, ytterbium, and lutetium sub-group from the heavy rare earth element class.
Two m Laser is a Thulium
laser with a wavelength of 2,013 nm which was developed by LISA Laser Products in Germany in 2003.
(1) Rare earth metals are a group of 17 elements: europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium
, ytterbium, lutetium, scandium, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, and samarium.
is the main dopant to be used for S-band doped fiber amplifiers.
Rare earths are 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically 15 lanthanides: lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium
, ytterbium, lutetium, as well as scandium and yttrium.
The most applicable are "light metals" (lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium and neodymium), less often--"medium" (samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium), even less--"heavy" (erbium, thulium
, ytterbium, lutetium).
In its most common embodiment, the infrared upconversion in lanthanide-doped nanoparticles is initiated by the absorption of 975 nm light by the sensitizer ion [Yb.sup.3+], followed by energy transfer and ladder-climbing in the manifold of states in the activator ions [5,14,23,25, 30], such as erbium [Er.sup.3+], holmium ([Ho.sup.3+]), and thulium