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Although the vast majority are characterized by androgenetic diploidy, a small subset can have androgenetic tetraploidy (genotyping does not specifically distinguish diploid examples from tetraploid examples because peak heights do not indicate actual DNA content).
Induction to tetraploidy in Catarina scallop, Argopecten ventricosus (Sowerby II.
Importantly, further stressing checkpoint-defective C10 cells using acidic conditions induced tetraploidy, which is an important tumorigenic event in UC carcinogenesis .
However, 5-week DMBA application can be considered to be a premalignant stage of oral cancer, where it has been demonstrated to increase in tetraploidy or near-tetraploidy karyotypes starting from the second week of DMBA painting [16,17].
[18.] Gallardo MH, Bickham JW, Honeycutt RL, Ojeda RA, Kohler N (1999) Discovery of tetraploidy in a mammal.
Tetraploidy in a hybrid lizard of the genus Cnemidophorus (Teiidae).
When observing polyploidy, the most fequent was the presence of endoreduplication, while triploidy and tetraploidy were somewhat rarer.
Notch activation is associated with tetraploidy and enhanced chromosomal instability in meningiomas.
Ravid, "Deregulated Aurora-B induced tetraploidy promotes tumorigenesis," The FASEB Journal, vol.
The topics include cell-extrinsic effects of the tumor unfolded protein response on myeloid cells and T cells, human dendritic cell subsets as targets and vectors for therapy, tetraploidy as a case of immunological control of cell cycle aberrations for avoiding oncogenesis, ongoing adaptive immune responses in the microenvironment of melanoma metastases, and cancer-induced immuno-suppressive cascades and their reversal by molecular-targeted therapy.
Among the features that suggest a malignant course are large tumor size (>5 cms) and an abnormal DNA ploidy pattern (aneuploidy, tetraploidy).
Tetraploidy and 5q deletion in myelodysplastic syndrome: a case report.
Colchicine-induced tetraploidy and changes in allele frequencies in colchicine-treated populations of diploids assessed with RAPD markers in Gossypium arboreum L.
Tetraploidy and the evolution of catostomid fishes.
Three embryos identified as euploid on the screening test resulted in abnormal gestations: one tetraploidy, one Turner's syndrome, and one trisomy 13.
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