(18,19) This test involves direct compression of the proximal and radial edge of the pronator teres muscle
belly along the proximal volar forearm with the thumb.
After its formation, the median nerve reaches at the upper border of pronator teres and then it passes between the two heads of the pronator teres muscle. Classically, the nerve provides medial branches to the pronator teres as it pierces the muscle.
Hence, the aim of this study was to give detailed anatomical information about the pronator teres muscle innervation.
thous have an anatomical disposition similar to the domestic dog, but inter and intraspecific variations can be observed due to the formation of accessory muscles such as the accessory belly of the ulnar head of the flexor carpi ulnaris muscle; the vestigial presence of the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle; and the independent innervation of the musculocutaneous nerve to pronator teres muscle
While passing toward the interosseous membrane, the common interosseous artery was separated from the median and anterior interosseous nerves by the ulnar head of the pronator teres muscle
Variations of the pronator teres muscle
: predispositional role to median nerve entrapment.
A course of fascial stripping techniques was initiated, including: cross friction massage, instrument assisted fascial stripping to the medial epicondyle area and over the belly of the pronator teres muscle
using gua sha tools, ischemic compression of the trigger point found in the pronator teres, active assisted compressions to the trigger point noted in the pronator teres, and general mobilizations of the carpals, specifically the scaphoid as this carpal was noted to be restricted on motion palpation.
Unusual high-origin of the pronator teres muscle
from a Struthers' ligament coexisting with a variation of the musculocutaneous nerve.
Along its course, part of this nerve enters the axilla of the shoulder, runs immediately adjacent to the biceps, and descends within the hollow of the elbow under the pronator teres muscle
and the bicipital aponeurosis.
Dissected left forearm showing the nerve branch and motor entry point innervating the pronator teres muscle
. MEP, motor entry point; MN, median nerve; LACN, lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve; MED, medial; SUP, superior.
The relation of the median nerve to the pronator teres muscle
At the proximal origin, it fuses with the remnant of the pronator teres muscle
, which is attached to the medial collateral ligament of the elbow joint.
The pronator quadratus muscle is the main responsible for the pronation of forearm, and is helped by the pronator teres muscle
. These muscles ate innervated by branches of the interosseous nerve and the median nerve.
Campbell reported that the medial collateral ligament of the dog is located immediately below the junction of the pronator teres muscle
and radial flexor muscle of the carpus, distally to their origins.
Medial epicondylitis, or golfer's elbow, describes acute or chronic tearing of the flexor carpi radialis and/or pronator teres muscles
. (6) Careful attention to the history, location, quality, inciting characteristics of pain, as well as occupational and social factors are key to establishing the diagnosis.