In contrast to other teredinid species, which burrow in and ingest wood or woody plant materials (Distel, 2003), individuals of K.
Here we examine a recent collection of teredinid bivalves similar in appearance to K.
The phylogram shown in Figure 5 illustrates that, based on mt-COI sequences, wood-boring and sediment-dwelling specimens examined in this study form a single well-supported clade that is well differentiated from otheraccepted teredinid species.
We also suggest that the anatomy of the tubes likely rules out intromission, a form of reproduction that, although rare in Bivalvia, has been observed in the teredinid genera Bankia and Nausitora (Clapp, 1951 quoted in Turner, 1966; Hiroki et ah, 1994; Velasquez et al., 2011).
This pattern is consistent with the fact that all teredinid bivalves whose life histories have been described settle and metamorphose on wood (Turner, 1966, 1969).
elliottii piles had heavy teredinid attack (rated 1.5T) and was considered unserviceable.
elliottii piles at Cairns and Townsville were attacked by Sphaeroma and teredinids. Similar piles at Bundaberg were in better condition, possibly because of the absence of Sphaeroma.
The marine borer hazard in northern Queensland in Australia is particularly severe because of the activities of all four main types of marine borers, Limnoria, teredinids, Martesia, and Sphaeroma.
While teredinids bore internally, their entry holes and posterior regions can be detected using this method.
3.5 = light attack (e.g., 1 to 50 holes often to 25 mm long for Sphaeroma and Martesia, or fewer but longer holes for teredinids)
quadripunctata, and teredinids
present when dissolved oxygen was high.
The symbiont-containing tissue in Xylophaga also resembles that of the teredinids. Although teredinid gills are highly modified, the symbionts are found in an anatomically analogous region (Distel et al., 1991).
It is now well established that wood is a primary constituent of the teredinid diet (Gallager et al., 1981), although nutrients may also be obtained from suspension feeding (Mann and Scott, 1985).
This novel combination of symbiont metabolic activities is now thought to be essential for the survival of teredinids on a diet composed primarily of wood, a food source that, although rich in carbon and energy, is deficient in nitrogen and cannot be digested by most animals.
Whereas teredinids are the predominant wood-boring bivalves in shallow waters (intertidal to 100 m), bivalves of the subfamily Xylophagainae (family Pholadidae) fill the same niche in the deep oceans, occurring primarily at depths from 150 m to greater than 7000 m (Turner, 1972).