Fracture propagation criteria are dominated by the composite criteria of volumetric plastic shear strain increment and volumetric plastic tensile strain
increment, which indicates that if the volumetric plastic shear strain increment or the volumetric plastic tensile strain
increment exceeds zero, then the fracture propagates.
Caption: Figure 10: Deformation process during tensile test (model J; [epsilon] is tensile strain
in z direction.
Rock Density UCS (1) Tensile strength category (g/[cm.sup.3]) (MPa) (MPa) Sandstone 2.51 28 7.8 Rock Elastic modulus Limited tensile strain
category (GPa) ([mu][epsilon]) Sandstone 42 185.7 Rock Limited compress strain category ([mu][epsilon]) Sandstone 666.7 (1) Uniaxial compressive strength.
So for this area it may be assumed, that the sum of factors: large values of tensile strain
in certain directions, existence of fault outcrops and covering of old extraction edges in several coal seams were causes of deformations arising.
The cell-collagen solutions were added into the loading chambers of our custom-built uniaxial tensile strain
bioreactor  and polymerized at 37[degrees]C for 1 hour.
where [[alpha].sub.c] is the parameter value of curve falling section, obtained according to the specification of different concrete strength; [f.sup.*.sub.c] is the uniaxial compressive strength of concrete obtained by material test; [[epsilon].sub.c] is the peak tensile strain
corresponding to [f.sup.*.sub.c], the uniaxial compressive strength of concrete; [d.sub.c] is the uniaxial compression damage evolution coefficient of concrete; [E.sub.c] is the elastic modulus of the concrete.
Meanwhile, the smaller the rebar spacing, the smaller the tensile strain
The variation of the lengths of the Cr-O bonds around a single Cr atom was determined as a function of the applied tensile strain
. As shown in Figure 5(a), there exist three equivalent Cr-O bonds (green) above the Cr atom and another three equivalent Cr-O bonds (blue) below this atom, which is indicated as [Cr.sup.*].
The peak tensile strain
ranged between 2727 [mu][epsilon] and 276 [mu][epsilon] while the peak compressive strain ranged between -3907 [mu][epsilon] and -324 [mu][epsilon].
The most common tests for tensile strength (MPa or PSD are tensile chord modulus of elasticity (MPA or PSD, tensile strain
(%), Poisson's ratio and transition strain (%).
However, after induction bending, these properties rapidly decrease because a new microstructure is obtained and also tensile strain
, in extrados part, and compression strain in intrados part, is given to the material.
Table 1--mechanical and physical properties of new COPE grades Properties Riteflex-425 RKX-302 Hardness--durometer A 77 75 Hardness--durometer D 25 23 Density 1.06 1.000 Flexural modulus 20 MPa 16 MPa Tensile modulus 16 MPa 15 MPa Tensile stress at 50% 3 MPa 3.3 MPa strain Tensile strain
at break 750% >800% DTUL*@ 0.45 MPa 42[degrees]C 39[degrees]C Initial tear resistance 61 kN/m 59 kN/m Notched Charpy at 23[degrees]C No break No break Vicat softening temperature 61 [degrees]C 45[degrees]C Notched Charpy at -30[degrees]C No break No break MFFT **--gm/min.
The PLA/PHO blend containing 10 wt% PHO had enhanced tensile strain
and unnotched impact strength compared to PLA, confirming that PHO acts as an impact modifier.
3C), thus suggesting that even folded fibers experience tensile strain
. In other words, a typical hyper-inflation should be more than sufficient to straighten the IM-3 collagen fibers completely, yet the fibers remained slightly wavy.
It is assumed that at the crack, the tensile strain
approaches infinity, whereas the stress-strain relation before cracking defines the strain at a distance besides the crack.