The very close parallels above serve to show that Reynolds' three properties of determinatives as a syntactic category, together with the words that meet those properties, look strikingly similar to those of Huddleston and Pullum (2002, p.
In the analysis of determinatives as a syntactic category and their function as a specifier, the author uses the following tests summarized in Table 1.
The above shows that the words in the my set meet two of the three properties of determinatives as a syntactic category (i.
they fall away from the prototypical syntactic category
adverbial, closer to the syntactic category
predicative and, as a result, partly into the categorial space shared with adjectives, because these words predicate of a nominal head.
Function words signal the syntactic category of the following content words.
la balle est rouge et verte' the ball is red and green for the noun target, or 'je mange une petite pomme' I eat a small apple, for the verb target); in ungrammatical sentences, we exchanged noun and verb targets, so that they now occupied an incorrect position, corresponding to a word from the other syntactic category (e.
There is no synchronic link from these cases to another item, and therefore no limit on the range of hypotheses that a learner may entertain about the syntactic category
and semantic value of the item in question.
However, this extended use of the diminutive suffix does not apply as productively to non-nouns as it does to nouns, that is, there is clearly a violation of a (soft) constraint on the syntactic category
of the base involved.
Yet again, the idea of less rigidly defined clear-cut categories comes to mind, as well as the risk of applying one single criterion in absolute terms: A few more examples will demonstrate that no change in the syntactic category takes place and yet we are sure of derivation: (to) tie--untie, happy--unhappy, loyal--disloyal, symmetrical--asymmetrical.
With reference to what I have been trying to elucidate, searching for relevant criteria, I believe that there must be two types of derivational morphemes, namely, (1) those that change the syntactic category of the base morpheme to which they apply (e.
where [alpha] is any syntactic category (Gazdar 1981: 157).
Perhaps Jackendoff's structuralization of Aux as a separate syntactic category M is closest to the mark.
Reference to meaning plays an important role here in terms of the combinability of formative elements, more important than the specification of syntactic category
of the WE base (p.
4) In transposition, there is a change at the syntactic level of the lexeme, that is, change in syntactic category, but no (independent) change at the semantic level.
A seemingly straightforward example of syntactic category preservation is the derivation of personal nouns from noun bases.