You must not imagine, however, that the swinish
quality had entirely gone out of them.
When Duncan is asleep - Whereto the rather shall his day's hard journey Soundly invite him - his two chamberlains Will I with wine and wassail so convince That memory, the warder of the brain, Shall be a fume, and the receipt of reason A limbeck only: when in swinish
sleep Their drenched natures lied as in a death, What cannot you and I perform upon The unguarded Duncan?
Mayhew is dissatisfied with the standard portrayals of post-Civil War congresses as immobilized by corruption and "a swinish
scramble for government largesse." That was certainly part of the story, but the era has been seriously understudied.
The Republican establishment denied that we were immobile or said that the swinish
multitude had brought its misery on itself.
Southey's poems such as "The Pig," "Sonnet--To a Goose," and "Gooseberry Pie--A Pindaric Ode" establish a pessimism of the swinish
reading multitudes, which Cross reads as Southey's capitulation to what sells.
Throughout the text, Lucy demonstrates an ever-present desire to demarcate herself from the "swinish
multitude" (V 91) of Catholics, who are "robust in body, feeble in soul, fat, ruddy, hale, joyous, ignorant, unthinking, unquestioning" (V 141; see Boumelha 1990, 118).
Modern progress, he wrote, had been making headway against tyranny and superstition, overthrowing monarchy and the dogma, until Walter Scott came along, "and by his single might checks this wave of progress, and even turns it back; sets the world in love with dreams and phantoms; with decayed and swinish
forms of religion; with decayed and degraded systems of government; with the sillinesses and emptinesses, sham grandeurs, sham gauds, and sham chivalries of a brainless and worthless long-vanished society." Scott's novels, Twain argued, "created rank and caste" in the South, by encouraging Southerners to throw off the modern liberty of the Enlightenment and embrace the ancient liberty of Romanticism.
Then comes Sir Walter Scott with his enchantments, and by his single might checks this wave of progress, and even turns it back; sets the world in love with dreams and phantoms; with decayed and swinish
forms of religion; with decayed and degraded systems of government; with the sillinesses and emptinesses, sham grandeurs, sham gauds, and sham chivalries of a brainless and worthless long-vanished society.
(32) What Salimbene does provide is a slew of unfavorable and hyperbolic descriptions, referring to the Apostolics as "congregationem illorum ribaldorum et porcariorum et stultorum et ignobilium qui se dicunt Apostolos esse et non sunt, sed sunt synagoga Sathane" ("that group of rascally and swinish
men, those fools and base creatures who say they are Apostles and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan" Salimbene de Adam Cronica 2:369; The Chronicle of Salimbene de Adam 249).
The topics include roots in the cultural politics of 19th-century Britain, swinish
classics or a conservative clash with cockney culture, classics and social closure, classically educated women in the early Independent Labour Part, and Labour's modernizing elite from the 1960s to classical times.
The celebrity culture is, as one observer put it, "swinish
." It no longer celebrates people with elegance, grace, wit, intelligence, and modesty.
Lady Macbeth's seeming inability to name "the place" where the murder was committed recalls her earlier reference to "the sticking-place." Faced with her husband's intransigence in the matter of Duncan's murder she urges him to "But screw your courage to the sticking-place / And we'll not fail" (1.7.60-1)--rousing words to which she promptly adds the further reassurance that Duncan's two warders will be so surfeited with wine "That memory, the warder of the brain, / Shall be a fume [...] When in swinish
sleep / Their drenched natures lie as in a death" (1.7.65-68).
See McNeur, "The 'Swinish
Multitude,'" 639-660; and Bradbury, "Pigs, Cows, and Boarders," 9-46.
According to Times theatre critic Kevin Maher, "two West End heavyweights, Patricia Hodge and Janet Suzman, have also castigated the swinish
hoard for being undereducated".
Multitude": Controversies over hogs in antebellum New York.