Binder et al . reported two infarct-related cases: one was a hemorrhagic venous infarct that evolved several minutes after coagulation of a bridging vein that was interrupted during dural opening (subthalamic nucleus
target), and the other was an ischemic capsular infarction that developed 1 week after subthalamic nucleus
Treatment with deep brain stimulation in the subthalamic nucleus
can help with the movement-related symptoms of PD, but recent studies have shown it also reduces pain.
Recently, there have been reports that ballism appears in vascular infarctions in the striatum (26) instead of the subthalamic nucleus
, which is the classical site for hemiballism.
Zrinzo et al., "Intra-operative recordings of local field potentials can help localize the subthalamic nucleus
in Parkinson's disease surgery," Experimental Neurology, vol.
Pollak, "Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus
for the treatment of Parkinson's disease," The Lancet Neurology, vol.
Rektor, "The effect of cortical repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cognitive event-related potentials recorded in the subthalamic nucleus
," Experimental Brain Research, vol.
According to the widely accepted hypothesis, hyperkinetic movement disorders occur due to the loss of subthalamic nucleus
control on the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), which leads to disinhibition of the thalamus.
In the indirect pathway, the signals entering the putamen from the cortex move toward the exit gate, i.e., the GPi/SNr after passing through the intermediate stations of the globus pallidus externalis and subthalamic nucleus
(STN), and they return to the cortex via the thalamus (1,2).
Targeting the subthalamic nucleus
for deep brain stimulation: technical approach and fusion of pre and postoperative MR images to define accuracy of lead placement.
Ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke within the contralateral subthalamic nucleus
(STN) and basal ganglia and nonketotic hyperglycemia are the most common causes of HH.
Anderson and Caldwell reported extensive migration of human neural progenitor cells (HNPCs) when grafted into the subthalamic nucleus
. Using a human-specific nuclear marker (hNuc) and a doublecortin (DCX) antibody associated with neuroblast migration, researchers could confirm that HNPCs remain in an immature state .
Sanghera, Desaloms, and Stewart (2004) described clinical experiences of preoperative and immediate postoperative aspects of 78 patients with PD undergoing subthalamic nucleus
* basal ganglia: thalamus, globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus
While the association between subthalamic nucleus
deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) and DDS is not fully known, a probable mechanism is abnormal dopamine oscillation to the nucleus accumbens and overstimulation of the mesolimbic system (2).