Figure 6b shows the effect of submergence on cloud depth for the PBTU.
When the up-pumping impeller is used with a small submergence, the flow at the surface is much stronger and the particles are swept from the surface to the walls, where a zone of rapid downward circulation is found.
I] impeller Reynolds number S submergence, distance from the surface to the centreline of the impeller (m) SG specific gravity T tank diameter (m) Te temperature ([degrees]C) [V.
Four fully baffled geometries simulated using CFD Configuration 1 2 3 4 Impeller PBTD PBTD PBTU PBTU Diameter (D) T/2 T/2 T/2 T/2 Submergence (S) T/2 T/4 T/2 T/4 [N.
The data suggest that forced submergences of 2-year-old loggerhead sea turtles reared in captivity produce significant blood metabolic and respiratory acidosis.
First, a laboratory component was conducted to examine the feasibility of a multiple submergence study.
The turtle was then submerged a third time, following the same rest interval between the first and second submergence episodes, and pre- and postsubmergence blood samples were collected as described above.
The submergence study was initiated after a minimum of 21 days of natural conditioning in the in-water pens.
Thus, the total submergence time was approximately 7.
The remaining analyses were comparable for both the laboratory and field components of the submergence study.
The initial submergence of loggerhead sea turtles under laboratory and field conditions produced a dramatic and severe acidosis in all experimental turtles.
5-min submergence produced a drop in blood pH and an increase in [Pco.
This explanation, however, is unlikely given that substantial fluctuations in hematocrit were observed during the course of the submergence experiments and that a normal hematocrit was measured in the final serial blood sample.