8%) samples to streptomycin
, 31(19%) to ethambutol, 16(9.
The highest frequencies of resistance by the MIC method were observed for ampicillin and streptomycin
tuberculosis isolates showed resistance to isonazid and streptomycin
There exist strong association amongst the prevalence of oxytetracycline resistance with streptomycin
and sulphamethoxazole /trimethoprim resistance in E.
Amino glycosides including streptomycin
have been found to cause modulation of the release of excitatory neurotransmitters from primary afferent nerve terminals.
coli S IS R Total S IS R Total Ampicillin -- 2 6 8 -- -- 2 2 Cefotaxime -- 8 -- 8 -- -- 2 2 Enrofloxacin -- 2 6 8 -- 2 -- 2 Gentamicin 7 1 -- 8 -- 2 -- 2 Norfloxacin -- 8 -- 8 -- 2 -- 2 Streptomycin
-- -- 8 8 -- -- 2 2 Tetracycline -- -- 8 8 -- -- 2 2 Ceftriaxone+ 8 -- -- 8 1 1 -- 2 Tazobactum S-sensitive, I-intermediate sensitive, R-resistant
For example mutation rate for resistance against streptomycin
is 1 in 108 1 in 107 for ethambutol and 1 in 109 for cycloserine (Gangadharam 1984).
The test was performed for the following antibiotics and amounts: ampicillin, 10 [micro]g, imipenem, 10 [micro]g, gentamicin, high content, 30 [micro]g, streptomycin
, high content, 300 [micro]g, vancomycin, 5 [mucro]g, linezolid, 10 [micro]g, quinupristin/dalfopristin, 15 [micro]g, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, 25 [micro]g, and tigecycline, 15 [micro]g (disks were purchased from Oxoid, UK and Becton Dickinson, USA).
The 1948 MRC streptomycin
trial could perhaps be called the pinnacle of the OEBM in the sense that it provided the most useful scientific information about how to treat tuberculosis, and it opened the era of RCTs in medicine, which were perfect examples of the testing of the falsifiable hypotheses a la Popper in medical research.
EXPERIMENT ELEVEN: DARK SECRETS BEHIND THE DISCOVERY OF A WONDER DRUG is the first book to provide an in-depth history of wonder drug Streptomycin
, its disputed Nobel Prize, and the events that changed scientific and pharmaceutical history.
A nationally representative survey of about 4 000 people with tuberculosis showed that, in 2007, one-third of new cases as well as more than a half of previously treated cases had tuberculosis resistant to at least one of the first-line drugs - isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, and streptomycin
Antibacterial activities of the extracts were compared with streptomycin
and ampicillin in terms of zones of inhibition.
The antibiotic, streptomycin
, became the first effective treatment for tuberculosis.
Experiment Eleven: Dark Secrets Behind the Discovery of a Wonder Drug follows the discovery and development of another major antibiotic, streptomycin
, which was the first true cure for tuberculosis.
Level of sensitivity of non-transformed wild type sugarcane cells regenerating on callus induction and regeneration media supplemented with various levels of antibiotics including spectinomycin, streptomycin
and kanamycin was tested in order to find out their the lethal dose for the selection of transformants.