1) documentation of the diurnal cycle of stratus, stratocumulus
, and cumulus over SWA using three aircraft with very similar payloads measuring atmospheric dynamics/thermodynamics, gas-phase chemistry, aerosols, and clouds in coordination with a wide range of ground-based instrumentation and the densest radiosounding network ever;
Cold front sequence: Cirrus Cirrocumulus Altocumulus Stratocumulus
Cumulonimbus (summer) or nimbostratus (winter) Warm front sequence: Cirrus Cirrostartus Cirrocumulus Altocumulus Nimbostratus or cumulonimbus Stratus
Inviting banks of stratocumulus
still come ashore but rarely produce even a drizzle along the Atacama coast.
The overall conclusion is that the air-sea coupling results in a positive feedback that leads to the development of the SST error: models fail in especial areas where poor simulation of certain atmospheric phenomena such as deep convection over Brazil and the stratocumulus
over Angola coast are driving wrong surface fluxes and winds, which in turn yield a too deep mean equatorial thermocline and a warm SST bias (Large and Danabasoglu 2006; Chang et al.
, or low clouds, are also composed of water droplets and are less than a mile high.
Second, moisture provides extra cloud cover to veil the storm cells in stratocumulus
, obscuring it.
If an area is bright on a visible-light image but dark in the infrared, it's probably low cloud such as stratocumulus
, or perhaps fog.
The weather was partly cloudy with stratocumulus
clouds (ceiling about 500 m), but the sun was most often visible, even through the rather thin clouds.
But if Earth's climate warms as atmospheric scientists predict, we may all beg for stratocumulus
Lock, 2014: Seamless stratocumulus
simulation across the turbulent gray zone.
Turbulence in clouds is generated by the updraft and downdraft motions embedded within cumulonimbus and cumulus clouds, with lighter currents in stratocumulus
And stratus, stratocumulus
, cumulus and cumulonimbus are found below 2,500 metres.
The final case study followed from the previous cases on aerosol processing by drizzling stratocumulus
from the Eighth CMW and the Global Atmospheric System Studies (GASS) Kinematic Driver-Aerosol (KiD-A) intercomparison.
The aircraft punched out of thick, low stratocumulus
and was in an area of VMC on top.
HOLTSLAG (2000): Evaluation of the kinetic energy approach for modeling turbulent fluxes in stratocumulus