The auditory startle response
in the Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome and Parkinson's disease.
There were no group differences in average startle response
to the 120 dB pulse alone (one-way ANOVA, F(3,84) = 0.273, p = 0.845).
Willott, "Acoustic startle response
in young and aging C57BL/6J and CBA/J mice," Behavioral Neuroscience, vol.
Enoka is the expert who defined startle response
, interlimb response and postural disturbance as three main factors in unintentional discharge.
The fear memory was calculated by subtracting the baseline startle response
-- to the sound on the 'good' colour -- from the response to the sound when the 'bad' colour was showing.
latencies and iEMG in OOc were compared between conditions 240StartReact and 240ContraStartReact applying Mann--Whitney U test, as not all subjects presented with startle signs in OOc in both conditions, precluding pairwise comparisons.
The startle response
(limbic hijack) is a physical and mental reaction to a sudden unexpected stimulus.
resulting in unintended discharge is also a very real possibility.
Conditioned fear as revealed by magnitude of startle response
to an auditory stimulus.
We must be concerned right now that children are having nightmares; some parents are so hypervigilant that any dropped objects are striking a startle response
; and many of our young boys and girls are walking in fear of seeing militarized police officers jump out of bushes.
Some symptoms to look for include intense psychological distress, recurrent distressing recollection, and frequent nightmares of the event, flashbacks, hypervigilance, and exaggerated startle response
, and feelings of detachment from others.
Interestingly, the startle response
of the insect was completely stifled, and it continued its pace despite observation by the authors.
Mang, Siegmund, and Blouin induce whiplash and consider the role of a startle response
using electromyography (EMG) outcome measures.
If infants do not learn that the world is safe, and to understand sensory input, they will retain these reflexes as a primary reaction to danger, or perceived danger, and will not develop a good adult startle response
that will allow them to realistically understand sensory information and their safe place in the world.
Affective modulation of startle reflex during perception is a highly stable and replicable finding that has been explained according to the motivational priming hypothesis (Lang, Bradley, & Cuthbert, 1997), in which activation of the defensive motivational system by an unpleasant stimulus primes related reflexes, such as the startle response
. Conversely, activation of the appetitive system by pleasant stimuli inhibits this reflex response, reducing its magnitude.