However, barriers between starer and staree appear to influence belief and thus barriers require further examination.
In addition, although the use of CCTV systems, where the starer views the staree via a computer-controlled video camera, is considered the gold standard of controlling for extraneous variables in remote staring experiments (Schmidt, Schneider, Utts, & Walach, 2004), there is currently no research examining the prevalence of belief in the existence of remote staring detection via the medium of CCTV systems.
The first study was an exploratory study designed to distinguish between aspects of remote staring experiences and beliefs, such as differences in acting as a starer and a staree, and to determine if participants believed that it was possible to detect a remote stare under various conditions.
There will be a significant difference in how common it is to experience being a starer compared to being a staree.
Based on the assumption that the eye is attracted to movement in a field of vision, he suggested that the starer's gaze is simply drawn to the movement of the staree's head turning in his direction.
Williams (1983) increased separation by putting starer and staree in rooms 60 feet apart, linked only by a closed-circuit video arrangement, so that the starer could see the staree on a monitor during staring trials.
In the first, pairs of schoolchildren divide into starer and staree, after which the starer sits at least 1 m behind the staree.
He attempted to provide a psychological interpretation of the prevalence of the "staring" belief based on nervousness in social situations, attracting the attention of the starer, turning, and noticing the starer's gaze.
Poortman was seated in a separate room adjoining that of the starer, with his back to the starer.
The subject and the starer were in the same room or in open adjoining rooms, and the subject could have discriminated staring from nonstaring periods by means of subtle, unintentional auditory cues.
It can often be true even when you cannot see the starer.
So that there could be no peeking, subjects had to face away from the starer and wear a blindfold.
In Replication 1, half of the starees were persons already known by the starers (relatives, friends, or familiar undergraduate classmates), whereas half were unknown at the time of the laboratory session (i.e., they were unfamiliar undergraduates); only one of the starees had participated previously in laboratory psi experiments.
The starers of Replication 1 were three undergraduate psychology students (two females and one male) from a local college who were participating in independent studies internships at the Mind Science Foundation.
The possibility of sensory cueing was eliminated through the use of a closed-circuit television system for staring: the starer devoted full attention to the staree's image on the television monitor.