The classification of tuberculosis patients can also be in accordance with the grading of pretreatment sputum smear
results on diagnosis.
microscopy was negative in all patients after completion of the intensive phase and remained negative until completion of treatment.
Many sputum smear
negative patients are reported to have progressive disease.13,14 Previous reports in non-immune compromised patients with sputum sputum-scarce TB indicated that bronchoscope specimens and post bronchoscope sputum are helpful in establishing the diagnosis.9,15 Superiority of Gene Xpert in immunocompromised patients to detect TB as compared to microscopy is debatable.
While older age, higher sputum smear
grading at baseline and previous FLD treatment outcome were the factors associated with poor treatment outcomes.
Manual for Sputum Smear
Fluorescence Microscopy, Central TB Division; 5:06-11.
PCR proved to be more sensitive compared to the sputum smears
or culture based tuberculosis diagnosis.
After getting ethical clearance, all patients who are above 14 years of age having cough along with expectoration for more than two weeks with clinical and radiological evidence of PTB along with sputum smear
for AFB tested negative between October 2014 and July 2016 were taken for study.
Diagnosis of PTB was made by an expert physician and was based on sputum smear
microscopy and radiography.
Records were collected in terms of age, gender, contact with TB, vaccination with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), albumin, body mass index (BMI), smoking and alcohol intake, presenting complaints, sputum smear
and culture, range of TB disease, lung cavity and its range, course of TB, history of TB treatment, comorbidity, etc.
The most common and definitive diagnosis method remains sputum smear
microscopy in which stained sputum smear
specimens are examined under a microscope for detecting the presence of bacillus.
The aim of the current study was to assess burden of sputum smear
positive results as measured by AFB smears in Gambella (western Ethiopia) Regional Hospital in the last two consecutive years (mid 2013 to 2015).
Florescence microscopy was done after fluorochrome staining following standard protocols and bacteria found graded according to the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (IUATLD)/WHO for reporting the sputum smear
microscopy results .
The change in bacterial infection status of sputum of patients from initial Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFB) positive to negative after treatment is referred to as sputum smear
 Sputum testing by the Xpert MTB/RIF test may enable quicker diagnosis and earlier treatment initiation than sputum smear
 RNTCP recommends periodic sputum smear
microscopy during the course of treatment to monitor patient progress and to assess overall program performance.