By examining tiny paint chips with various spectroscopic
methods, the scientists determined the chemical compositions of the paint, glaze, and varnish layers on the canvas.
The volume contains critically evaluated spectroscopic
reference data for about 16 000 transitions, from the soft x ray to the visible regions, for most ions of the elements of the Fe-group, from Ti though Ni, as well as for Cu, Kr, and Mo.
Meanwhile, Doyle's team presented spectroscopic
data indicating successful trapping of more than a billion molecules of the simple compound calcium monohydride, cooled to 350 millikelvins.
A large amount of water ice preserved within Mathilde would help explain its low density, but Earth-based spectroscopic
measurements of the asteroid show that there is no water locked within it.
Strom of the University of Massachusetts at Amherst says that some spectroscopic
studies can be approximated by observing through specific color filters on the other two cameras.
Researchers previously had indirect biochemical and spectroscopic
evidence that the enzyme rotates, an idea also supported by F1-ATPase's three-dimensional structure, determined in 1994.
method, on the other hand, detects the star's back-and-forth motion along the line of sight to Earth.
Interestingly, they say, the spectroscopic
measurements made of the pressurized oxygen-hydrogen mixture "are almost identical" to those of the separate elements in solid form--"which is quite surprising," they add.
measurements of light emitted by excited metal atoms enable researchers to determine the types of elements and their concentrations in the exhaust gas.