Sand dunes: At Ridges Sanctuary, average amino sugar N concentration of soil beneath speckled alder was greater than both the adjacent and Canada buffaloberry soil averages for amino sugar N concentrations (Table 2).
Soils under speckled alder at the northernmost study locations of Ridges Sanctuary and Whitefish Dunes State Park, Wisconsin exhibited the greatest increase in amino sugar N over adjacent background soils compared with all other N-fixing plants in this study.
They include: a northern bayberry in Nassau County; a common juniper in Schenectady County; a black locust in Wayne County; a scarlet hawthorn and a Norway spruce in Oneida County; and a northern oak, a speckled alder, a prairie crab apple and a purple osier willow in Monroe County.
The stream's headwaters are small, surrounded by grassy banks choked with speckled alders. Downstream, the brook meanders, widening and deepening, allowing trout to hold in pools and fly fishermen to cast.