First, while this study was delimited to female athletes, the sample size was small, there was a discrepancy between the specializer (n = 53) and non-specializer (n = 24) sample sizes, and there were limited sports (soccer, tennis, and volleyball) represented.
(2009), for example, compared youth sport specializers and non-specializers and found specializers were significantly higher on their physical/emotional exhaustion dimension of burnout compared to non-specializers.
Athletes' less self-determined motivation may lead to burnout over time (Gould, Tuffey, Udry, & Loehr, 1997), yet little research has examined whether youth sport "specializers" may have less self-determined motivations or more burnout than non-specializers.
The loop in the naive implementation is implicit; making it visible to the specializer enables new optimizations, for example, loop unrolling.
The specializer performs the equivalent of the standard sets-of-items construction on-the-fly using its memoization point mechanism: for each state, specialization generates one version of ds-parse and one of ds-parse-bar.
This way, the specializer derives from a specification of Go in first-order logic an efficient program that plays Go quite effectively.
Tempo is a successful specializer for the C programming language.
On-line partial evaluators perform all the control decisions during the actual specialization phase, whereas off-line specializers
perform an analysis phase that generates annotations on the program before the actual specialization begins [Jones et al.
Lauren Elmore is the president of Firmatek, a leader in the mining, construction, and solid waste industries that specializers
in using drones and data collection to solve problems related to inventory and stockpile measurement, mining and solid waste mapping, and construction and engineering work.
Subareas of faculty performer specialization Number Percent of all performance specializers
Voice 238 22.6% Woodwinds 209 19.9% Keyboard 178 16.9% Strings 155 14.7% Brass 140 13.3% Percussion 62 5.9% Combination 39 3.7% Choral/Opera 6 0.6% Collaborative piano 6 0.6% Orchestra 4 0.4% Early music 4 0.4% World 4 0.4% Something else 4 0.4% Band 2 0.2% Table 3.
Thus, "early specializers
" usually skip the sampling years, and consequently, may experience some negative physical and psychosocial outcomes during this period such as overuse injuries, reduced sport enjoyment, and dropout (Law, Cote, & Ericsson, 2007; Wall & Cote, 2007).
Instead of modelling firms as producing increasing amounts of same list of outputs, economists are increasingly modelling firms as specializers
who collectively produce smallish amounts of an increasing number of outputs.
in major league baseball, pro and college football, pro and college basketball, pro hockey, and horse racing.
So-called "specializers" (Strachan, Cote, & Deakin, 2009, p.
Perceptions of low autonomy can result in emotional exhaustion and burnout (Baker, 2003; Coakley, 1992, 2009; Gould, 2010; Gould et al., 1996; Raedke, 1997; Strachan et al., 2009), and since lower autonomy may be more evident in specialized sport settings, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation levels may be different in specializers compared to nonspecializers.