In essence, the proposed spatial variable
provides a method to quantify the quality of "big water" views (or the lack thereof) in residential property markets.
A nonlinear random forest model was used to estimate the relationship between several spatial variables
and maximum air temperature at 59 local weather stations on the days of the Landsat images.
In order to exhibit the advantages of the QSC-PDC method, we perform the classical parareal method for system (64), and the spatial variable
is also discretized by optimal QSC.
Next we consider the Tiebout (1956) spatial variables
When excluding municipalities, we create empty spaces in the spatial weight matrix, which will affect the coefficients of the spatial variables
to some degree; not accounting for the missing municipalities' effects may bias the coefficient, making the potential spatial effects smaller.
The spatial factors consisted of nine spatial variables
constructed from the xy coordinates of each plot site.
We also investigated the effect of 1) 3 water masses, the South Atlantic Central Water (SACW), Coastal Water (CW), and Mixed Water (M), and 2) a set of environmental and spatial variables
on the SBB pelagic fish assemblages.
Explicit solution of (4), (5) can be obtained using the method of integral transforms  by all spatial variables
(x,y,z) and not touching time argument t that is accepted as the main one.
These spatial variables
were used as spatial explanatory variables in our regression analyses together with a variation partitioning technique (Borcard and Legendre, 2002).
Therefore, this scheme can achieve fourth order accuracy for both temporal and spatial variables
In addition, among the four major sets of factors above, this study finds that the institutional variables as well as the spatial variables
are two of the most important factors affecting Chinese regional unemployment rates.
Maddison (2006) is the only study to consider these spatial variables
, but he excludes the other three globalization variables.
In this example, y and z represent 2 spatial variables