In poetry, the author's style uses the spatial property
of writing, and plays on the double dimension (paradigmatic and syntagmatic) of the language.
Krauss (1998) reported a high rate of gesturing activity on spatial prepositions such as "under" and "adjacent" but also on terms such as "spin" or "cube." We distinguished among four different types of terms or referents: (a) spatial location terms, which describe the orientation or topography of an object in space, such as "under" and "on"; (b) spatial property terms, which describe the shape or form of an object, such as "square" and "short"; (c) manipulation/movement terms, which describe the motion or manipulation of an object, such as "open" and "hold"; and (d) nonspatial terms, which describe nondynamic characteristics of an object, such as "color" and "warm."
For spatial property terms, there was a significant main effect of gesture on listener comprehension, F(1, 38) = 3.95, p = .027 (for gesture, M = 2.47; for nongesture, M = 3.23).