The lesser maple spanworm
moth, the greater red dart, the ashen pinion (Lithophane antennata), the speckled green fruitworm moth (Orthosia hibisci), the maple looper moth (Parallelia bistriaris) and the variable oakleaf caterpillar moth (Lochmaeus manteo) affect forest hardwoods and orchard trees, whereas the ipsilon dart, the Boston dart (Euxoa bostoniensis), the variegated cutworm moth and the armyworm moth impact cultivated plant species.
For example, Roland and Embree (1995) recorded the similar pattern of outbreaks of winter moth, Bruce's spanworm
, and fall cankerworm in Nova Scotia Canada, and Klimetzek (1990) described a spatial synchronization of outbreaks of four pine-feeding insects in Germany.
A setback occurred in the 1957 to 1963 period when elm spanworms
invaded the area, killing many oaks, especially on the high ridges.