The concrete spalling
had occurred because in most locations on the building there was inadequate concrete coverage over the reinforcing steel.
The thermal reaction allows for the enlargement of the hole to the total width of the vein by breaking the rock in a spalling
The solid cellular design eliminates worries over filter contamination from spalling
during mold closing.
Steel reinforcing bars continue to corrode and rust builds up exerting pressure against the concrete and pushing it away from the building, resulting in visible cracking and spalling.
This multi-building complex in Manhattan has been chronically suffering from spalling concrete; repeated repair projects using cementitious patches have failed to provide a lasting solution.
Typically, a refractory lining is removed prematurely due to superheating, finning, spalling, erosion, buildup or saturation.
Generally, spalling is caused by improper installation of sintering, yet is also associated with thermal cycling and mechanical stress conditions.
The result is, as the name implies, an internal bloating of the refractory that, being a brittle material, responds by cracking and spalling