Plains Spadefoots are freeze-intolerant but are able to supercool to -4[degrees]C, which may be important to juveniles that burrow near their natal ponds and are unable to burrow as deeply as adults to avoid freezing temperatures (Swanson and others 1996; Dodd 2013).
In 2014, overwintering Plains Spadefoots emerged from their burrows to breed before 20 May.
In comparison, Dave's Pond yielded 21 species of amphibians and reptiles including the state endangered crawfish frog (Lithobates areolatus); the spadefoot toad (Scaphiopus holbrookii), which had previously been known in Indiana no closer than 65 miles to the southeast; the newt (Notophthalmus viridescens), which has not been found recently at any other locality in Vigo County or the surrounding counties in Indiana and Illinois; and Kirtland's snake (Clonophis kirtlandii), another species of special concern.
1977) compared the food habits of four species of spadefoot toads; the specimens of Scaphiopus holbrookii used in this study were all from Vigo County and largely from the Dave's Pond site.
Spadefoots employ both phenotypic and nonphenotypic cues to identify relatives.
For example, facultatively cannibalistic spadefoot toad tadpoles (Spea bombifrons) ingest nonkin in preference to kin when the cannibal is satiated, but these tadpoles become less selective when food is limited (Pfennig et al.
A tiny Couch's spadefoot toad hops around the pool's edge.
This spadefoot toad had better hurry up and snatch that cricket before it leaps away.
A desert-adapted amphibian closer to home is the spadefoot
toad, which spends most of the year buried like a stone, cool and moist.
Breeding wetlands and upland terrestrial habitat used by the Great Basin Spadefoot (Spea intermontana) are under intense pressure from the expansion of agriculture, urban development, and loss of grasslands throughout the species range (AmphibiaWeb 2012).
The pool partially fills with rainwater and woody debris each spring, and since 1994 the landowner, with assistance of the primary author in 2003-2004, has been counting the number of adults and emerging metamorphic Spadefoot Toads.
Eastern Spadefoots (Scaphiopus holbrookii) range widely across eastern North America (approx.
Hansen (1958) suggested that physiological uptake of water activates gametogenesis in Eastern Spadefoots and that soil saturation resulting from heavy rainfall stimulates reproductive behavior.
All things being equal, the cannibalistic spadefoots don't eat their brothers and sisters," says Pfennig.
As in the spadefoot, some of the salamander larvae develop into cannibals, triggered, it seems, by a combination of genetics and diet.