Asked to justify the Soviet
invasion of Afghanistan, Reed happily obliged, arguing that it was merely a defensive action against American imperialism.
For nearly a decade, even before he became Russia's "president," THE NEW AMERICAN has been reporting on Putin's KGB pedigree and his steady implementation of a long-range Soviet
deception strategy, including the public rehabilitation and refortifying of the KGB-FSB.
Premier Mikhail Gorbachev launches a program of economic and political reforms called perestroika (or "restructuring").
Union and the United States knew they couldn't fight each other directly, so their battles--both for popularity and for territory--took place elsewhere.
campaign to undermine him, but also the collapse in 1991 of the Soviet
Union, Cuba's chief economic and political patron.
He was already well traveled in the Soviet
Union, and now he went the length and breadth of that far-flung territory to gather dances and dancers to represent the entire Soviet
Not only is this a rare example of one of the projects Kabakov actually installed in his studio in Moscow before perestroika, but, juxtaposed with the Guggenheim's "masterpieces" of Soviet
kitsch, the piece makes it much clearer why a Russian alive in the early '80s would want to catapult himself through the ceiling.
In focusing on the policies of the Soviet
government toward private traders and consumers, Hessler challenges this view of the era, replacing it with a "darker" interpretation.
Flung between one army and the other, those left behind after the Soviet
deportations either fled as refugees or marched into battle.
When Kazakhstan declared independence in December 1991 it did not possess an army and so was forced to form an organization from disparate parts of what remained from the Soviet
Drugged by TV, the rank-and-file animals are content to follow the Seven Commandments of Animalism painted on the barn by Squealer (the pig who symbolizes Pravda and the Soviet
news agency TASS).
The reviewer welcomes this book as a balanced account of Soviet
achievements and failures and as an alternative to frequent negative accounts of the Soviet
experience in the 1990s found in books like Martin Malia's The Soviet
Tragedy: A History of Socialism in Russia (1994), which views the Soviet
Union as a second Tatar yoke.
THE NEW RUSSIAN STATE CREATED after the dissolution of the Soviet
Union in December 1991 is neither a simple continuation of its legal Soviet
predecessor nor of the former Russian Empire, which ended during World War I in 1917.
Sentenced as Vatican spies (in Polish only) includes materials from the Soviet
Union's secret police archives, as well as documents from the notorious Solovets Islands prison camp.