Plants were collected from the fence and sod of each cemetery, creating discreet populations of smooth bromegrass plants.
For each of the 30 cemeteries, three orthogonal contrasts were computed: (i) the linear regression of fence population means on the number of harvests over the 2-yr period, (ii) the linear regression of sod population means on the number of harvests over the 2-yr period, and (iii) the linear response x habitat interaction, which measures the difference in slope between (i) and (ii).
While fence populations may be relatively stable because of low or nil immigration rates and lack of obvious natural selection pressures, sod populations are subject to immigration and natural selection (Casler, 2004).
Since the early 19th century, logging, grazing, and military training have transformed the Sods.
In 1975 Congress responded by passing the Eastern Wilderness Areas Act, conferring protection to 15 new locations, including one-third of the Dolly Sods, and broadening the wilderness designation to include rehabilitated wildlands.
Spaghnum bogs with insect-eating sundew plants and snowshoe hares make the Dolly Sods an important outpost of a more northern biome.
The low regrowth vigor of this and several other sod populations indicates that rural cemetery sods are not a universal source of smooth bromegrass germplasm with superior regrowth potential.
In June 1995, while visiting my maternal grandparents' gravesite, I discovered a thick and vigorous stand of smooth bromegrass growing in a sod dominated by Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.
Smooth bromegrass plants were collected only from cemeteries with the following characteristics: (i) a well-managed turf, dominated by Kentucky bluegrass, with few obvious weeds and showing no evidence of infrequent or lax mowing management, (ii) a reasonably vigorous stand of smooth bromegrass in the sod, (iii) a good stand of uncut smooth bromegrass in the fence or border area.
Sod is often exposed to an adverse environment characterized by high temperature and lack of irradiance after harvest and during transport.
Transplant rooting is an important parameter for survival and successful establishment of sod (Giese et al.
However, there are few studies concerning the influence of these PGRs on PE and transplant sod survival and rooting.
By closing loopholes and applying these more effective sodsaver provisions nationwide, we can save taxpayers money, eliminate an unintended crop insurance incentive to break native sod, and protect Americas diminishing prairie grasslands that are so important to our grazing livestock producers, said Thune.
The sodsaver provision we implemented in six Midwestern states as part of the 2014 Farm Bill has successfully reduced the conversion of native sod, saved taxpayer dollars, and encouraged wildlife habitat, said Klobuchar.
Apply sodsavers prohibition to substitute crop insurance yields on native sod that is converted to cropland nationwide;