A year after the Baze decision, the sole manufacturer of sodium thiopental
in the United States stopped producing the drug.
In January 2011, Hospira, Inc., the sole American manufacturer of sodium thiopental
but whose plant is located in Italy, stated that it would no longer produce the drug after Italian authorities indicated it would not permit exportation of the drug if used for capital punishment.
As mentioned above, the European Union has implemented measures that regulate the export of drugs commonly associated with lethal injections, such as sodium thiopental
In 2011, the sole manufacturer of sodium thiopental
tried to transfer production of the drug to Europe.
But pentobarbital is considered a controversial substitute for sodium thiopental
because its manufacture is often poorly regulated, and contaminated batches can cause exruciating pain prior to death.
Better training of the technicians who carry out lethal injections would help, and so would simplification of Oklahoma's needlessly complicated protocol, which calls for three drugs when one large dose of a barbiturate such as sodium thiopental
States have been scrambling in recent years to come up with a new formula for executions after their stockpiles expired or ran out when European manufacturers of such previously used drugs as pentobarbital and sodium thiopental
stopped selling them for use in executions.
On day 15, animals were deeply anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of sodium thiopental
(50 mg/kg, i.p.).
Under sodium thiopental
(50mg/kg, i.p.) anesthesia, the left kidney was exposed via a flank incision.
After at least 3-5 minutes of preoxygenation in a 10-15[degrees] tilted position, anesthesia was induced by 4-5 mg/kg Sodium Thiopental
and 1.5-2 mg/ kg Suxamethonium.
An internal medicine resident in Atlanta heard an anesthesiologist joking about the lethal dose of sodium thiopental
. Alone in the call room, she would overdose that night.
(42) The first drug that would have been administered was sodium thiopental
(also known as Pentothol), which is a fast-acting barbiturate sedative.
The injectable agents include droperidol (Inapsinc), etomidare (Amidate), fospropofol (Lusedra), ketamine (Ketalar), methohexital (Brevital), midazolam (Versed), propofol (Diprivan), and sodium thiopental
It might be because of larger dose of Propofol infusion (160m/kg/min) that we chose in this group, which acted like a loading dose and continued to reach the steady state while sodium Thiopental
still had hypnotized the patient.
Suppliers of the three most common drugs - sodium thiopental
, pancuronium bromide and potassium chloride - are facing stiff international pressure to stop the deadly trade.