The sodalities Chaminade founded were unique for their time in that men and women, people of various ages, people from all social classes, and people involved in a variety of occupations were invited to become members.
The sodalities founded by Chaminade would not continue their growth without difficulty.
Black lay sodalities functioned as a very special type of voluntary association for enslaved women and men of African descent in Brazil during the slavery regime.
This article is intended to suggest a new orientation for the scrutiny of black lay sodalities in Brazil.
Black lay sodalities in colonial and early nineteenth-century Brazil have already attracted a considerable amount of scholarly attention.
Ethnicity in the Formation and Development of Black Lay Sodalities
8) Such enslaved people of African birth obviously sought the formation of lay sodalities for their own needs; in 1789 the presence of at least seventeen black sodalities was recorded in Salvador.
As many scholars have already noted, probably the most unique function of black lay sodalities was as emancipation societies: the statutes of black sodalities stipulated the provision of loans from emancipation funds for their slave members; once the slave obtained his/her freedom, he/she was obliged to return the money to the sodality, so that another slave member could use the loan.
The formation of black lay sodalities in Salvador inevitably reflected the changing ethnic composition of the African-born slave population; first, "Angolan" sodalities came into being and later slaves originally from West Africa developed their own sodalities.
The oldest black sodalities in Salvador were not established until the last decades of the seventeenth century; the intensive influx of slaves from Angola, many of whom shared the same ethnic origins, had not resulted in the immediate formation of lay sodalities.
2) The new era lived up to Pasquino's expectations, for the Roman humanists were rewarded and entertained not only in the papal court but also, less formally, in the vigne of numerous Maecenases and fellow poets, where they came together in literary groups, or sodalities, to dine, exchange their poetry, and celebrate the shared ideals of the humanist community.
9) The sodalities were loosely organized, and their memberships overlapped.
3 For the sodalities see Gnoli, 1938, 136-63; D'Amico, 89-114.