have mistakenly supposed that the endorphin-inducing effects of worship explain religion--or rather, explain it away.
Huntington's landmark Political Order in Changing Societies; second, Fukuyama's version of Jared Diamond's 1997 bestselling History and Theory of Everything, Guns, Germs, and Steel; and, third, a revolutionary work that introduces to political science the cutting edge Darwinian insights of 1960s-1970s sociobiologists
and social Darwinists have also claimed to find "immutable laws" of social stratification.
A major puzzle for many sociobiologists
in understanding the process of natural selection among humans is how to find an evolutionary place and role for altruism, or for generous other-centeredness, as distinct from self- or group-interest.
of Delaware) traces the history of scientific ideas and their reception on how a hen "chooses" a rooster for a mate, from Darwin's belief in aesthetic comparison in humans and other animals, through geneticists' rejection of cognitive choice in non-humans, to renewed interest by sociobiologists
, organismal field biologists, and some feminists in a Darwinian model of female mating behavior as a mechanism for evolutionary change.
To reconstruct the past, sociobiologists
such as Hrdy look for similar behaviors to compare across species, regardless of evolutionary relationship; in contrast, physical anthropologists focus on closely related species that have a shared evolutionary history, in this case chimpanzees and humans--an approach that Hrdy apparently rejects, at least for this behavior.
But today's sociobiologists
are increasingly convinced that social evils lie not with inequities in human institutions, but within the essence of humanity itself.
have attempted to assess sexual differences and inequality at the onset of the second women's movement of the 1960's.
She claims that for sociobiologists
, "It is the biological nature of humans to be socially stratified.
Instead, according to Stephen Jay Gould and Richard Lewontin, sociobiologists
construct "plausible stories" that may or may not be true.
Such a way of thinking avoids the extremes of both anthropocentrism, exemplified by Cartesian metaphysics which radically separates humans from nature, and biocentrism, which is a naive form of biological reductionism expressed by both deep ecologists and sociobiologists
contend that humans are genetically adapted to be comfortable in "natural" settings, but their immediate environment has evolved to include ever-increasing surroundings of metal, concrete, and plastic.
To address the implications for the social sciences of the disappearance of the ontological distinction between humans and nature, Fuller discusses the influence on and challenge of biology to social sciences especially, in particular from sociobiologists
who give genetic explanations of human behavior.
The underpinnings of this theory were criticised by neo-Darwinists in general and sociobiologists
Although Dawkins employed certain tools distinct from those standard to most sociobiologists
and evolutionary psychologists--the meme in particular--he has remained steadfast in his commitment to the evolutionary paradigm as the optimal strategy for understanding human behavior, an important observation that inevitably leads us to a more comprehensive and heady evaluation of this great intellectual clash.