Total versus variable social costs
. Social costs
can reflect either the variable cost of using the payment method or the total cost, including fixed costs in addition to variable costs.
In retrospect, environmental sustainability could be viewed as cumulative disturbances of non-optimal deviations from a long-run social extraction path corrected by social re-investments that carry social capital returns exceeding marginal social cost
Figure 6 shows the resulting trajectories of initiation, overall prevalence, prevalence of injection, and social cost
. The key point is that the magnitude of the drug problem (as reflected in drug-related social costs
) grows steadily and even smoothly in the face of this massively successful policy intervention.
This is not to say that Oregon should turn a blind eye to the social costs
and regressive nature of gambling, be it the state lottery or tribal casinos, for the sake of revenue.
And the debating continues, 47 years after the publication of "The Problem of Social Cost
" (Coase 1960), the essay recognized as the source of the ideas in question.
My impression is that the book stands for the proposition that more research needs to be done to adequately address the question of how to measure social costs
and reflect these in prices.
Grinols simply ignores the controversy over social cost
studies in the literature.
Both probabilities and social costs
may differ for the four cases (Table 1).
Levin, a professor of economics and education at Teachers College at Columbia University in New York City "Even though many of us may feel that we are unaffected by the massive educational inequities in our society, the facts are just the opposite," said Levin, who has studied the economics of education, including social costs
analyses, for almost 40 years.
When addiction ripens in the market, so do the social costs
." Las Vegas and Reno have had gambling for more than 70 years now, Atlantic City for 30.
Certainly this situation at present is one where the apparent saving by not manning stations is less than the total financial and social costs
to the community.
The Social Costs
of Underemployment: Inadequate Employment as Disguised Unemployment.
And he exposes the class bias built into such arrests along with the excessive social costs
of the drug war compared to its benefits.
responds to such social indicators could have serious implications and social costs
in the future, says Rice.
The Government said the environmental and social costs
are estimated at pounds 9 billion per year, with more than half due to road congestion.