Therefore there is a good probability that these estimates indicate a higher migration rate for the host species (despite females being wingless) than the parasite, which would be interpreted as to they are more prone for local adaptation due to a higher evolutionary potential than in the parasite, as occurred in other slave-maker ants .
Tinaut, "Dufour's gland secretion as a repellent used during usurpation by the slave-maker ant Rossomyrmex minuchae," Journal of Insect Physiology, vol.
Within the subfamily Formicinae only two genera fit the previous definition of slave-makers: Polyergus and Rossomyrmex [5-7].
The normal process is that after finding a new host nest to invade, the parasite worker marks the way to its nest with pheromones and afterwards fellow slave-makers are attracted in few seconds.
Social parasites such as slave-makers are able to cheat their hosts chemically by actively acquiring or evolving similar cuticular profiles of their hosts (see ) in order to favor social integration in the nest and avoid aggression .
This possibility comes from the fact that slave-makers would not benefit from a less virulent behavior (given that they always win the fights) if host densities are constantly high , as it is the case of P longiseta .
Our goal is simply to propose that certain traits and habitats should correlate with given life histories, while others (such as a tropical slave-maker with an obligately-sterile worker caste) should be highly unlikely.
In the Hymenoptera there are three types of social parasites in which the brood are raised by host workers: temporary social parasites, slave-makers (dulotics), and inquilines or permanent social parasites.
Allozyme studies of temporary social parasites and facultative slave-makers in the genus Formica indicate multiple-mating by queens, but mating frequency ranges from close to 1.0 in F.
In species where social parasitism is temporary or in species that are facultative slave-makers (the workers can and do take care of brood if slaves are not available), nonconspecific brood care may be present for only one or a few cohorts of larvae and perhaps only during a season where queens would have a low survival rate (Fig.
The leptothoracine slave-makers (of the genera Epimyrma, Harpagoxenus, Leptothorax, and Protomognathus) can be very common and have high colony densities (Wesson, 1939; Buschinger, 1986; Bourke et al., 1988; Herbers and Pamilo, unpubl.
When the slave-makers
reach the target nest, they spray it with a chemical that forces the Formica adults to flee, leaving behind most of the young.