The treatments performed were as follows: (1) spontaneous self-pollination
, in which inflorescences remained protected with nylon bags without manipulation throughout flowering to prevent pollination by insects; (2) manual self-pollination
, where flowers received pollen from the same plant; (3) manual cross-pollination, carried out by collecting pollen grains of flowers from the second area; (4) natural pollination, where flowers were not manipulated and left exposed to the action of all flower visitors and; (5) Apis mellifera treatment: monitoring was carried out through the removal of insects of other species so that only A.
2010), suggested that self-pollination
and self-compatibility in bromeliads evolved as a mechanism to avoid interspecific pollen flow among congeners in highly diverse ecosystems.
Abiotic and self-pollination
are used for local pollination for the second rule.
A higher proportion of recessive homozygotes is expected in seeds resulting from self-pollination
57 Dependent(%) Attributed to wind- Attributed to or self-pollination
animal pollination Macronutrients Protein 13.
Flowers require pollination for seeds and fruits to form, but for coffee it is widely believed that either self-pollination
or pollination by wind is enough.
In Chinese cabbage the mature pollen tube passed into the embryo sac 16 h after self-pollination
which needed more times than that of soybean (Gao et al.
The coconut is a cross-pollinated type of plant that depends on self-pollination
or pollination by an agent.
T4: Hand self-pollination
(geitonogamy)--a day before the work of pollination, 185 flower buds that would open the next day were bagged with tulle bag and were protected from any possible pollinator.
The scarcity of bees, on one hand, would make many plant and animal species disappear; on the other hand, it would force farmers to resort to various enviable methods to do the very job by hand: for instance, they may have to take dust mops to collect pollen from some flowers and then unload them on different flowers in order to make sure cross pollination, as opposed to self-pollination
, takes place for the sake of healthy offspring.
Other Apis species, Ceratina and Trigona bees with slow mobility between conspecific trees for forage collection mostly effect self-pollination
which is not the mode of breeding system in B.
Many self-compatible species have special adaptations to prevent the automatic self-pollination
, such as species herkogamous, protandrous and protogynous.
Various studies show that species of Byrsonima, even though having requirements for cross-pollination, have some degree of self-pollination
and self-compatibility (Barros, 1992).
we did not control for possible self-pollinations
caused by bagging or unbagging capitula for diurnal and nocturnal pollination treatments, and we did not detect a significant difference in production of achenes in these treatments compared to wind and control treatments, as would be expected if manipulation of capitula had increased self-pollination
in most cross-pollinated crops produces weak plants.