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  • noun

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an organelle found in the cytoplasm of most cells (especially in leukocytes and liver and kidney cells)

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The organelles most frequently observed in the present study of the high cuboidal follicular cells of hyperactive stage of younger goats thyroids of 1-3 years included secretory vesicles, microvilli, cisternae of RER, colloid droplets, mitochondria (often closely associated to RER), Golgi complexes, primary lysosomes and secondary lysosomes. The importance of these features is that, they are the organelles required for optimum production of thyroid hormones from protein synthesized from the follicular cells.
It can be assumed from the clearly seen features in the microphotographs (Figure 5) that after one hour of incubation the conjugate is mainly localized in secondary lysosomes (according to the size and shape of the structures, etc.) but only in the small amount is localized in mitochondria.
Our novel morphological data in skeletal myotubes are interesting for different reasons: first of all, they confirmed the presence of a basal persistent autophagy in DMSO control myotubes at 24 h as an adaptive and cytoprotective reaction to intense catabolism in the muscle [3, 25]; second, upon 50 [micro]M CisPt early new autophagy was further superimposed to basal autophagy but was impaired at 24 h when excessive autophagolysosomes accumulated and apoptosis occurred; finally, different from CisP-treated, starved myotubes showed up to 8 h peculiar autophagic vacuoles, very similar to secondary lysosomes filled with lipidic debris.
The degenerative alterations were characterized by sparse and degraded organelles, increased number of secondary lysosomes or lysosomal residuals, frequently appearing crinophagy, lyric or pyknotic nuclei, and disrupted cell membranes and cellular structures (Figures 2-5).
These large cells have many cytoplasmic inclusions, such as phagosomes, secondary lysosomes, and residual bodies.
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